find

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File: find.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Up: (dir)

   This file documents the GNU utilities for finding files that match
certain criteria and performing various actions on them.

   This is edition 4.2.31, for `find' version 4.2.31.

* Menu:

* Introduction::		Summary of the tasks this manual describes.
* Finding Files::		Finding files that match certain criteria.
* Actions::			Doing things to files you have found.
* Databases::			Maintaining file name databases.
* File Permissions::		How to control access to files.
* Reference::			Summary of how to invoke the programs.
* Common Tasks::		Solutions to common real-world problems.
* Worked Examples::		Examples demonstrating more complex points.
* Security Considerations::	Security issues relating to findutils.
* Error Messages::		Explanations of some messages you might see.
* Primary Index::		The components of `find' expressions.

File: find.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Finding Files,  Prev: Top,	 Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

This manual shows how to find files that meet criteria you specify, and
how to perform various actions on the files that you find.  The
principal programs that you use to perform these tasks are `find',
`locate', and `xargs'.	Some of the examples in this manual use
capabilities specific to the GNU versions of those programs.

   GNU `find' was originally written by Eric Decker, with enhancements
by David MacKenzie, Jay Plett, and Tim Wood.  GNU `xargs' was
originally written by Mike Rendell, with enhancements by David
MacKenzie.  GNU `locate' and its associated utilities were originally
written by James Woods, with enhancements by David MacKenzie.  The idea
for `find -print0' and `xargs -0' came from Dan Bernstein.  The current
maintainer of GNU findutils (and this manual) is James Youngman.  Many
other people have contributed bug fixes, small improvements, and
helpful suggestions.  Thanks!

   To report a bug in GNU findutils, please use the form on the Savannah
web site at `http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils'.  Reporting
bugs this way means that you will then be able to track progress in
fixing the problem.

   If you don't have web access, you can also just send mail to the
mailing list.  The mailing list <bug-findutils@gnu.org> carries
discussion of bugs in findutils, questions and answers about the
software and discussion of the development of the programs.  To join
the list, send email to <bug-findutils-request@gnu.org>.

   Please read any relevant sections of this manual before asking for
help on the mailing list.  You may also find it helpful to read the
NON-BUGS section of the `find' manual page.

   If you ask for help on the mailing list, people will be able to help
you much more effectively if you include the following things:

   * The version of the software you are running.  You can find this
     out by running `locate --version'.

   * What you were trying to do

   * The _exact_ command line you used

   * The _exact_ output you got (if this is very long, try to find a
     smaller example which exhibits the same problem)

   * The output you expected to get

* Menu:

* Scope::
* Overview::
* find Expressions::

File: find.info,  Node: Scope,	Next: Overview,	 Up: Introduction

1.1 Scope
=========

For brevity, the word "file" in this manual means a regular file, a
directory, a symbolic link, or any other kind of node that has a
directory entry.  A directory entry is also called a "file name".  A
file name may contain some, all, or none of the directories in a path
that leads to the file.	 These are all examples of what this manual
calls "file names":

     parser.c
     README
     ./budget/may-94.sc
     fred/.cshrc
     /usr/local/include/termcap.h

   A "directory tree" is a directory and the files it contains, all of
its subdirectories and the files they contain, etc.  It can also be a
single non-directory file.

   These programs enable you to find the files in one or more directory
trees that:

   * have names that contain certain text or match a certain pattern;

   * are links to certain files;

   * were last used during a certain period of time;

   * are within a certain size range;

   * are of a certain type (regular file, directory, symbolic link,
     etc.);

   * are owned by a certain user or group;

   * have certain access permissions;

   * contain text that matches a certain pattern;

   * are within a certain depth in the directory tree;

   * or some combination of the above.

   Once you have found the files you're looking for (or files that are
potentially the ones you're looking for), you can do more to them than
simply list their names.  You can get any combination of the files'
attributes, or process the files in many ways, either individually or
in groups of various sizes.  Actions that you might want to perform on
the files you have found include, but are not limited to:

   * view or edit

   * store in an archive

   * remove or rename

   * change access permissions

   * classify into groups

   This manual describes how to perform each of those tasks, and more.

File: find.info,  Node: Overview,  Next: find Expressions,  Prev: Scope,  Up: Introduction

1.2 Overview
============

The principal programs used for making lists of files that match given
criteria and running commands on them are `find', `locate', and
`xargs'.  An additional command, `updatedb', is used by system
administrators to create databases for `locate' to use.

   `find' searches for files in a directory hierarchy and prints
information about the files it found.  It is run like this:

     find [FILE...] [EXPRESSION]

Here is a typical use of `find'.  This example prints the names of all
files in the directory tree rooted in `/usr/src' whose name ends with
`.c' and that are larger than 100 Kilobytes.
     find /usr/src -name '*.c' -size +100k -print

   Notice that the wildcard must be enclosed in quotes in order to
protect it from expansion by the shell.

   `locate' searches special file name databases for file names that
match patterns.	 The system administrator runs the `updatedb' program
to create the databases.  `locate' is run like this:

     locate [OPTION...] PATTERN...

This example prints the names of all files in the default file name
database whose name ends with `Makefile' or `makefile'.	 Which file
names are stored in the database depends on how the system
administrator ran `updatedb'.
     locate '*[Mm]akefile'

   The name `xargs', pronounced EX-args, means "combine arguments."
`xargs' builds and executes command lines by gathering together
arguments it reads on the standard input.  Most often, these arguments
are lists of file names generated by `find'.  `xargs' is run like this:

     xargs [OPTION...] [COMMAND [INITIAL-ARGUMENTS]]

The following command searches the files listed in the file `file-list'
and prints all of the lines in them that contain the word `typedef'.
     xargs grep typedef < file-list

File: find.info,  Node: find Expressions,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Introduction

1.3 `find' Expressions
======================

The expression that `find' uses to select files consists of one or more
"primaries", each of which is a separate command line argument to
`find'.	 `find' evaluates the expression each time it processes a file.
An expression can contain any of the following types of primaries:

"options"
     affect overall operation rather than the processing of a specific
     file;

"tests"
     return a true or false value, depending on the file's attributes;

"actions"
     have side effects and return a true or false value; and

"operators"
     connect the other arguments and affect when and whether they are
     evaluated.

   You can omit the operator between two primaries; it defaults to
`-and'.	 *Note Combining Primaries With Operators::, for ways to
connect primaries into more complex expressions.  If the expression
contains no actions other than `-prune', `-print' is performed on all
files for which the entire expression is true (*note Print File Name::).

   Options take effect immediately, rather than being evaluated for each
file when their place in the expression is reached.  Therefore, for
clarity, it is best to place them at the beginning of the expression.

   Many of the primaries take arguments, which immediately follow them
in the next command line argument to `find'.  Some arguments are file
names, patterns, or other strings; others are numbers.	Numeric
arguments can be specified as

`+N'
     for greater than N,

`-N'
     for less than N,

`N'
     for exactly N.

File: find.info,  Node: Finding Files,	Next: Actions,	Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Finding Files
***************

By default, `find' prints to the standard output the names of the files
that match the given criteria.	*Note Actions::, for how to get more
information about the matching files.

* Menu:

* Name::
* Links::
* Time::
* Size::
* Type::
* Owner::
* Permissions::
* Contents::
* Directories::
* Filesystems::
* Combining Primaries With Operators::

File: find.info,  Node: Name,  Next: Links,  Up: Finding Files

2.1 Name
========

Here are ways to search for files whose name matches a certain pattern.
*Note Shell Pattern Matching::, for a description of the PATTERN
arguments to these tests.

   Each of these tests has a case-sensitive version and a
case-insensitive version, whose name begins with `i'.  In a
case-insensitive comparison, the patterns `fo*' and `F??' match the
file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.

* Menu:

* Base Name Patterns::
* Full Name Patterns::
* Fast Full Name Search::
* Shell Pattern Matching::	Wildcards used by these programs.

File: find.info,  Node: Base Name Patterns,  Next: Full Name Patterns,	Up: Name

2.1.1 Base Name Patterns
------------------------

 -- Test: -name pattern
 -- Test: -iname pattern
     True if the base of the file name (the path with the leading
     directories removed) matches shell pattern PATTERN.  For `-iname',
     the match is case-insensitive.(1) To ignore a whole directory
     tree, use `-prune' (*note Directories::).	As an example, to find
     Texinfo source files in `/usr/local/doc':

	  find /usr/local/doc -name '*.texi'

     Notice that the wildcard must be enclosed in quotes in order to
     protect it from expansion by the shell.

     As of findutils version 4.2.2, patterns for `-name' and `-iname'
     will match a file name with a leading `.'.	 For example the
     command `find /tmp -name *bar' will match the file
     `/tmp/.foobar'.  Braces within the pattern (`{}') are not
     considered to be special (that is, `find . -name 'foo{1,2}''
     matches a file named `foo{1,2}', not the files `foo1' and `foo2'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Because we need to perform case-insensitive matching, the GNU
fnmatch implementation is always used; if the C library includes the GNU
implementation, we use that and otherwise we use the one from gnulib

File: find.info,  Node: Full Name Patterns,  Next: Fast Full Name Search,  Prev: Base Name Patterns,  Up: Name

2.1.2 Full Name Patterns
------------------------

 -- Test: -wholename pattern
 -- Test: -iwholename pattern
     True if the entire file name, starting with the command line
     argument under which the file was found, matches shell pattern
     PATTERN.  For `-iwholename', the match is case-insensitive.  To
     ignore a whole directory tree, use `-prune' rather than checking
     every file in the tree (*note Directories::).  The "entire file
     name" as used by `find' starts with the starting-point specified
     on the command line, and is not converted to an absolute pathname,
     so for example `cd /; find tmp -wholename /tmp' will never match
     anything.

 -- Test: -path pattern
 -- Test: -ipath pattern
     These tests are deprecated, but work as for `-wholename' and
     `-iwholename', respectively.  The `-ipath' test is a GNU
     extension, but `-path' is also provided by HP-UX `find'.

 -- Test: -regex expr
 -- Test: -iregex expr
     True if the entire file name matches regular expression EXPR.
     This is a match on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to
     match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression
     `.*bar.' or `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  *Note Syntax of Regular
     Expressions: (emacs)Regexps, for a description of the syntax of
     regular expressions.  For `-iregex', the match is
     case-insensitive.	There are several varieties of regular
     expressions; by default this test uses POSIX basic regular
     expressions, but this can be changed with the option `-regextype'.

 -- Option: -regextype name
     This option controls the variety of regular expression syntax
     understood by the `-regex' and `-iregex' tests.  This option is
     positional; that is, it only affects regular expressions which
     occur later in the command line.  If this option is not given, GNU
     Emacs regular expressions are assumed.  Currently-implemented types
     are

    `emacs'
	  Regular expressions compatible with GNU Emacs; this is also
	  the default behaviour if this option is not used.

    `posix-awk'
	  Regular expressions compatible with the POSIX awk command
	  (not GNU awk)

    `posix-basic'
	  POSIX Basic Regular Expressions.

    `posix-egrep'
	  Regular expressions compatible with the POSIX egrep command

    `posix-extended'
	  POSIX Extended Regular Expressions

     *Note Regular Expressions:: for more information on the regular
     expression dialects understood by GNU findutils.


File: find.info,  Node: Fast Full Name Search,	Next: Shell Pattern Matching,  Prev: Full Name Patterns,  Up: Name

2.1.3 Fast Full Name Search
---------------------------

To search for files by name without having to actually scan the
directories on the disk (which can be slow), you can use the `locate'
program.  For each shell pattern you give it, `locate' searches one or
more databases of file names and displays the file names that contain
the pattern.  *Note Shell Pattern Matching::, for details about shell
patterns.

   If a pattern is a plain string--it contains no
metacharacters--`locate' displays all file names in the database that
contain that string.  If a pattern contains metacharacters, `locate'
only displays file names that match the pattern exactly.  As a result,
patterns that contain metacharacters should usually begin with a `*',
and will most often end with one as well.  The exceptions are patterns
that are intended to explicitly match the beginning or end of a file
name.

   If you only want `locate' to match against the last component of the
file names (the "base name" of the files) you can use the `--basename'
option.	 The opposite behaviour is the default, but can be selected
explicitly by using the option `--wholename'.

   The command
     locate PATTERN

   is almost equivalent to
     find DIRECTORIES -name PATTERN

   where DIRECTORIES are the directories for which the file name
databases contain information.	The differences are that the `locate'
information might be out of date, and that `locate' handles wildcards
in the pattern slightly differently than `find' (*note Shell Pattern
Matching::).

   The file name databases contain lists of files that were on the
system when the databases were last updated.  The system administrator
can choose the file name of the default database, the frequency with
which the databases are updated, and the directories for which they
contain entries.

   Here is how to select which file name databases `locate' searches.
The default is system-dependent.

`--database=PATH'
`-d PATH'
     Instead of searching the default file name database, search the
     file name databases in PATH, which is a colon-separated list of
     database file names.  You can also use the environment variable
     `LOCATE_PATH' to set the list of database files to search.	 The
     option overrides the environment variable if both are used.

File: find.info,  Node: Shell Pattern Matching,	 Prev: Fast Full Name Search,  Up: Name

2.1.4 Shell Pattern Matching
----------------------------

`find' and `locate' can compare file names, or parts of file names, to
shell patterns.	 A "shell pattern" is a string that may contain the
following special characters, which are known as "wildcards" or
"metacharacters".

   You must quote patterns that contain metacharacters to prevent the
shell from expanding them itself.  Double and single quotes both work;
so does escaping with a backslash.

`*'
     Matches any zero or more characters.

`?'
     Matches any one character.

`[STRING]'
     Matches exactly one character that is a member of the string
     STRING.  This is called a "character class".  As a shorthand,
     STRING may contain ranges, which consist of two characters with a
     dash between them.	 For example, the class `[a-z0-9_]' matches a
     lowercase letter, a number, or an underscore.  You can negate a
     class by placing a `!' or `^' immediately after the opening
     bracket.  Thus, `[^A-Z@]' matches any character except an
     uppercase letter or an at sign.

`'
     Removes the special meaning of the character that follows it.  This
     works even in character classes.

   In the `find' tests that do shell pattern matching (`-name',
`-wholename', etc.), wildcards in the pattern will match a `.'	at the
beginning of a file name.  This is also the case for `locate'.	Thus,
`find -name '*macs'' will match a file named `.emacs', as will `locate
'*macs''.

   Slash characters have no special significance in the shell pattern
matching that `find' and `locate' do, unlike in the shell, in which
wildcards do not match them.  Therefore, a pattern `foo*bar' can match
a file name `foo3/bar', and a pattern `./sr*sc' can match a file name
`./src/misc'.

   If you want to locate some files with the `locate' command but don't
need to see the full list you can use the `--limit' option to see just
a small number of results, or the `--count' option to display only the
total number of matches.

File: find.info,  Node: Links,	Next: Time,  Prev: Name,  Up: Finding Files

2.2 Links
=========

There are two ways that files can be linked together.  "Symbolic links"
are a special type of file whose contents are a portion of the name of
another file.  "Hard links" are multiple directory entries for one
file; the file names all have the same index node ("inode") number on
the disk.

* Menu:

* Symbolic Links::
* Hard Links::

File: find.info,  Node: Symbolic Links,	 Next: Hard Links,  Up: Links

2.2.1 Symbolic Links
--------------------

Symbolic links are names that reference other files.  GNU `find' will
handle symbolic links in one of two ways; firstly, it can dereference
the links for you - this means that if it comes across a symbolic link,
it examines the file that the link points to, in order to see if it
matches the criteria you have specified.  Secondly, it can check the
link itself in case you might be looking for the actual link.  If the
file that the symbolic link points to is also within the directory
hierarchy you are searching with the `find' command, you may not see a
great deal of difference between these two alternatives.

   By default, `find' examines symbolic links themselves when it finds
them (and, if it later comes across the linked-to file, it will examine
that, too).  If you would prefer `find' to dereference the links and
examine the file that each link points to, specify the `-L' option to
`find'.	 You can explicitly specify the default behaviour by using the
`-P' option.  The `-H' option is a half-way-between option which
ensures that any symbolic links listed on the command line are
dereferenced, but other symbolic links are not.

   Symbolic links are different to "hard links" in the sense that you
need permissions upon the linked-to file in order to be able to
dereference the link.  This can mean that even if you specify the `-L'
option, `find' may not be able to determine the properties of the file
that the link points to (because you don't have sufficient
permissions).  In this situation, `find' uses the properties of the
link itself.  This also occurs if a symbolic link exists but points to
a file that is missing.

   The options controlling the behaviour of `find' with respect to
links are as follows :-

`-P'
     `find' does not dereference symbolic links at all.	 This is the
     default behaviour.	 This option must be specified before any of the
     file names on the command line.

`-H'
     `find' does not dereference symbolic links (except in the case of
     file names on the command line, which are dereferenced).  If a
     symbolic link cannot be dereferenced, the information for the
     symbolic link itself is used.  This option must be specified
     before any of the file names on the command line.

`-L'
     `find' dereferences symbolic links where possible, and where this
     is not possible it uses the properties of the symbolic link itself.
     This option must be specified before any of the file names on the
     command line.  Use of this option also implies the same behaviour
     as the `-noleaf' option.  If you later use the `-H' or `-P'
     options, this does not turn off `-noleaf'.

`-follow'
     This option forms part of the "expression" and must be specified
     after the file names, but it is otherwise equivalent to `-L'.  The
     `-follow' option affects only those tests which appear after it on
     the command line.	This option is deprecated.  Where possible, you
     should use `-L' instead.

   The following differences in behavior occur when the `-L' option is
used:

   * `find' follows symbolic links to directories when searching
     directory trees.

   * `-lname' and `-ilname' always return false (unless they happen to
     match broken symbolic links).

   * `-type' reports the types of the files that symbolic links point
     to.  This means that in combination with `-L', `-type l' will be
     true only for broken symbolic links.  To check for symbolic links
     when `-L' has been specified, use `-xtype l'.

   * Implies `-noleaf' (*note Directories::).

   If the `-L' option or the `-H' option is used, the file names used
as arguments to `-newer', `-anewer', and `-cnewer' are dereferenced and
the timestamp from the pointed-to file is used instead (if possible -
otherwise the timestamp from the symbolic link is used).

 -- Test: -lname pattern
 -- Test: -ilname pattern
     True if the file is a symbolic link whose contents match shell
     pattern PATTERN.  For `-ilname', the match is case-insensitive.
     *Note Shell Pattern Matching::, for details about the PATTERN
     argument.	If the `-L' option is in effect, this test will always
     return false for symbolic links unless they are broken.  So, to
     list any symbolic links to `sysdep.c' in the current directory and
     its subdirectories, you can do:

	  find . -lname '*sysdep.c'

File: find.info,  Node: Hard Links,  Prev: Symbolic Links,  Up: Links

2.2.2 Hard Links
----------------

Hard links allow more than one name to refer to the same file.	To find
all the names which refer to the same file as NAME, use `-samefile
NAME'.	If you are not using the `-L' option, you can confine your
search to one filesystem using the `-xdev' option.  This is useful
because hard links cannot point outside a single filesystem, so this
can cut down on needless searching.

   If the `-L' option is in effect, and NAME is in fact a symbolic
link, the symbolic link will be dereferenced.  Hence you are searching
for other links (hard or symbolic) to the file pointed to by NAME.  If
`-L' is in effect but NAME is not itself a symbolic link, other
symbolic links to the file NAME will be matched.

   You can also search for files by inode number.  This can occasionally
be useful in diagnosing problems with filesystems for example, because
`fsck' tends to print inode numbers.  Inode numbers also occasionally
turn up in log messages for some types of software, and are used to
support the `ftok()' library function.

   You can learn a file's inode number and the number of links to it by
running `ls -li' or `find -ls'.

   You can search for hard links to inode number NUM by using `-inum
NUM'. If there are any filesystem mount points below the directory
where you are starting the search, use the `-xdev' option unless you
are also using the `-L' option.	 Using `-xdev' this saves needless
searching, since hard links to a file must be on the same filesystem.
*Note Filesystems::.

 -- Test: -samefile NAME
     File is a hard link to the same inode as NAME.  If the `-L' option
     is in effect, symbolic links to the same file as NAME points to
     are also matched.

 -- Test: -inum n
     File has inode number N.  The `+' and `-' qualifiers also work,
     though these are rarely useful.  Much of the time it is easier to
     use `-samefile' rather than this option.

   You can also search for files that have a certain number of links,
with `-links'.	Directories normally have at least two hard links;
their `.' entry is the second one.  If they have subdirectories, each
of those also has a hard link called `..' to its parent directory.  The
`.' and `..' directory entries are not normally searched unless they
are mentioned on the `find' command line.

 -- Test: -links n
     File has N hard links.

 -- Test: -links +n
     File has more than N hard links.

 -- Test: -links -n
     File has fewer than N hard links.

File: find.info,  Node: Time,  Next: Size,  Prev: Links,  Up: Finding Files

2.3 Time
========

Each file has three time stamps, which record the last time that
certain operations were performed on the file:

  1. access (read the file's contents)

  2. change the status (modify the file or its attributes)

  3. modify (change the file's contents)

   There is no timestamp that indicates when a file was _created_.

   You can search for files whose time stamps are within a certain age
range, or compare them to other time stamps.

* Menu:

* Age Ranges::
* Comparing Timestamps::

File: find.info,  Node: Age Ranges,  Next: Comparing Timestamps,  Up: Time

2.3.1 Age Ranges
----------------

These tests are mainly useful with ranges (`+N' and `-N').

 -- Test: -atime n
 -- Test: -ctime n
 -- Test: -mtime n
     True if the file was last accessed (or its status changed, or it
     was modified) N*24 hours ago.  The number of 24-hour periods since
     the file's timestamp is always rounded down; therefore 0 means
     "less than 24 hours ago", 1 means "between 24 and 48 hours ago",
     and so forth.

 -- Test: -amin n
 -- Test: -cmin n
 -- Test: -mmin n
     True if the file was last accessed (or its status changed, or it
     was modified) N minutes ago.  These tests provide finer granularity
     of measurement than `-atime' et al., but rounding is done in a
     similar way.  For example, to list files in `/u/bill' that were
     last read from 2 to 6 minutes ago:

	  find /u/bill -amin +2 -amin -6

 -- Option: -daystart
     Measure times from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
     ago.  So, to list the regular files in your home directory that
     were modified yesterday, do

	  find ~ -daystart -type f -mtime 1

     The `-daystart' option is unlike most other options in that it has
     an effect on the way that other tests are performed.  The affected
     tests are `-amin', `-cmin', `-mmin', `-atime', `-ctime' and
     `-mtime'.	The `-daystart' option only affects the behaviour of
     any tests which appear after it on the command line.

File: find.info,  Node: Comparing Timestamps,  Prev: Age Ranges,  Up: Time

2.3.2 Comparing Timestamps
--------------------------

As an alternative to comparing timestamps to the current time, you can
compare them to another file's timestamp.  That file's timestamp could
be updated by another program when some event occurs.  Or you could set
it to a particular fixed date using the `touch' command.  For example,
to list files in `/usr' modified after February 1 of the current year:

     touch -t 02010000 /tmp/stamp$$
     find /usr -newer /tmp/stamp$$
     rm -f /tmp/stamp$$

 -- Test: -anewer file
 -- Test: -cnewer file
 -- Test: -newer file
     True if the file was last accessed (or its status changed, or it
     was modified) more recently than FILE was modified.  These tests
     are affected by `-follow' only if `-follow' comes before them on
     the command line.	*Note Symbolic Links::, for more information on
     `-follow'.	 As an example, to list any files modified since
     `/bin/sh' was last modified:

	  find . -newer /bin/sh

 -- Test: -used n
     True if the file was last accessed N days after its status was
     last changed.  Useful for finding files that are not being used,
     and could perhaps be archived or removed to save disk space.

File: find.info,  Node: Size,  Next: Type,  Prev: Time,	 Up: Finding Files

2.4 Size
========

 -- Test: -size n[bckwMG]
     True if the file uses N units of space, rounding up.  The units
     are 512-byte blocks by default, but they can be changed by adding a
     one-character suffix to N:

    `b'
	  512-byte blocks (never 1024)

    `c'
	  bytes

    `k'
	  kilobytes (1024 bytes)

    `w'
	  2-byte words

    `M'
	  Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

    `G'
	  Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

     The `b' suffix always considers blocks to be 512 bytes.  This is
     not affected by the setting (or non-setting) of the POSIXLY_CORRECT
     environment variable.  This behaviour is different to the
     behaviour of the `-ls' action).  If you want to use 1024-byte
     units, use the `k' suffix instead.

     The number can be prefixed with a `+' or a `-'.  A plus sign
     indicates that the test should succeed if the file uses at least N
     units of storage (a common use of this test) and a minus sign
     indicates that the test should succeed if the file uses less than
     N units of storage.  There is no `=' prefix, because that's the
     default anyway.

     The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks
     in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  In other words,
     it's consistent with the result you get for `ls -l' or `wc -c'.
     This handling of sparse files differs from the output of the `%k'
     and `%b' format specifiers for the `-printf' predicate.


 -- Test: -empty
     True if the file is empty and is either a regular file or a
     directory.	 This might help determine good candidates for
     deletion.	This test is useful with `-depth' (*note Directories::)
     and `-delete' (*note Single File::).

File: find.info,  Node: Type,  Next: Owner,  Prev: Size,  Up: Finding Files

2.5 Type
========

 -- Test: -type c
     True if the file is of type C:

    `b'
	  block (buffered) special

    `c'
	  character (unbuffered) special

    `d'
	  directory

    `p'
	  named pipe (FIFO)

    `f'
	  regular file

    `l'
	  symbolic link; if `-L' is in effect, this is true only for
	  broken symbolic links.  If you want to search for symbolic
	  links when `-L' is in effect, use `-xtype' instead of `-type'.

    `s'
	  socket

    `D'
	  door (Solaris)

 -- Test: -xtype c
     This test behaves the same as `-type' unless the file is a
     symbolic link.  If the file is a symbolic link, the result is as
     follows (in the table below, `X' should be understood to represent
     any letter except `l'):

    ``-P -xtype l''
	  True if the symbolic link is broken

    ``-P -xtype X''
	  True if the (ultimate) target file is of type `X'.

    ``-L -xtype l''
	  Always true

    ``-L -xtype X''
	  False unless the symbolic link is broken

     In other words, for symbolic links, `-xtype' checks the type of
     the file that `-type' does not check.

     The `-H' option also affects the behaviour of `-xtype'.  When `-H'
     is in effect, `-xtype' behaves as if `-L' had been specified when
     examining files listed on the command line, and as if `-P' had
     been specified otherwise.	If neither `-H' nor `-L' was specified,
     `-xtype' behaves as if `-P' had been specified.

     *Note Symbolic Links::, for more information on `-follow' and `-L'.

File: find.info,  Node: Owner,	Next: Permissions,  Prev: Type,	 Up: Finding Files

2.6 Owner
=========

 -- Test: -user uname
 -- Test: -group gname
     True if the file is owned by user UNAME (belongs to group GNAME).
     A numeric ID is allowed.

 -- Test: -uid n
 -- Test: -gid n
     True if the file's numeric user ID (group ID) is N.  These tests
     support ranges (`+N' and `-N'), unlike `-user' and `-group'.

 -- Test: -nouser
 -- Test: -nogroup
     True if no user corresponds to the file's numeric user ID (no group
     corresponds to the numeric group ID).  These cases usually mean
     that the files belonged to users who have since been removed from
     the system.  You probably should change the ownership of such
     files to an existing user or group, using the `chown' or `chgrp'
     program.

File: find.info,  Node: Permissions,  Next: Contents,  Prev: Owner,  Up: Finding Files

2.7 Permissions
===============

*Note File Permissions::, for information on how file permissions are
structured and how to specify them.

 -- Test: -perm mode
     True if the file's permissions are exactly MODE, which can be
     numeric or symbolic.

     If MODE starts with `-', true if _all_ of the permissions set in
     MODE are set for the file; permissions not set in MODE are ignored.

     If MODE starts with `/', true if _any_ of the permissions set in
     MODE are set for the file; permissions not set in MODE are ignored.
     This is a GNU extension.

     If you don't use the `/' or `-' form with a symbolic mode string,
     you may have to specify a rather complex mode string.  For example
     `-perm g=w' will only match files which have mode 0020 (that is,
     ones for which group write permission is the only permission set).
     It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-' forms,
     for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write
     permission.

    `-perm 664'
	  Match files which have read and write permission for their
	  owner, and group, but which the rest of the world can read
	  but not write to.  Files which meet these criteria but have
	  other permissions bits set (for example if someone can
	  execute the file) will not be matched.

    `-perm -664'
	  Match files which have read and write permission for their
	  owner, and group, but which the rest of the world can read
	  but not write to, without regard to the presence of any extra
	  permission bits (for example the executable bit).  This will
	  match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

    `-perm /222'
	  Match files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or
	  their group, or anybody else).

    `-perm /022'
	  Match files which are writable by either their owner or their
	  group.  The files don't have to be writable by both the owner
	  and group to be matched; either will do.

    `-perm /g+w,o+w'
	  As above.

    `-perm /g=w,o=w'
	  As above

    `-perm -022'
	  Search for files which are writable by both their owner and
	  their group.

    `-perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111'
	  Search for files which are readable for everybody, have at
	  least one write bit set (i.e. somebody can write to them),
	  but which cannot be executed by anybody.  Note that in some
	  shells the `!' must be escaped;.

    `-perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x'
	  As above.

    `-perm -g+w,o+w'
	  As above.

	  Warning: If you specify `-perm /000' or `-perm /mode' where
	  the symbolic mode `mode' has no bits set, the test currently
	  matches no files.  This differs from the behaviour of `-perm
	  -000', which matches all files.  The behaviour of `-perm
	  /000' will be changed to be consistent with the behaviour of
	  `-perm -000'.	 The change will probably be made in early 2006.


File: find.info,  Node: Contents,  Next: Directories,  Prev: Permissions,  Up: Finding Files

2.8 Contents
============

To search for files based on their contents, you can use the `grep'
program.  For example, to find out which C source files in the current
directory contain the string `thing', you can do:

     grep -l thing *.[ch]

   If you also want to search for the string in files in subdirectories,
you can combine `grep' with `find' and `xargs', like this:

     find . -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -l thing

   The `-l' option causes `grep' to print only the names of files that
contain the string, rather than the lines that contain it.  The string
argument (`thing') is actually a regular expression, so it can contain
metacharacters.	 This method can be refined a little by using the `-r'
option to make `xargs' not run `grep' if `find' produces no output, and
using the `find' action `-print0' and the `xargs' option `-0' to avoid
misinterpreting files whose names contain spaces:

     find . -name '*.[ch]' -print0 | xargs -r -0 grep -l thing

   For a fuller treatment of finding files whose contents match a
pattern, see the manual page for `grep'.

File: find.info,  Node: Directories,  Next: Filesystems,  Prev: Contents,  Up: Finding Files

2.9 Directories
===============

Here is how to control which directories `find' searches, and how it
searches them.	These two options allow you to process a horizontal
slice of a directory tree.

 -- Option: -maxdepth levels
     Descend at most LEVELS (a non-negative integer) levels of
     directories below the command line arguments.  `-maxdepth 0' means
     only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

 -- Option: -mindepth levels
     Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than LEVELS (a
     non-negative integer).  `-mindepth 1' means process all files
     except the command line arguments.

 -- Option: -depth
     Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.
     Doing this is a good idea when producing lists of files to archive
     with `cpio' or `tar'.  If a directory does not have write
     permission for its owner, its contents can still be restored from
     the archive since the directory's permissions are restored after
     its contents.

 -- Option: -d
     This is a deprecated synonym for `-depth', for compatibility with
     Mac OS X, FreeBSD and OpenBSD.  The `-depth' option is a POSIX
     feature, so it is better to use that.

 -- Action: -prune
     If the file is a directory, do not descend into it.  The result is
     true.  For example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all
     files and directories under it, and print the names of the other
     files found:

	  find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

     The above command will not print `./src/emacs' among its list of
     results.  This however is not due to the effect of the `-prune'
     action (which only prevents further descent, it doesn't make sure
     we ignore that item).  Instead, this effect is due to the use of
     `-o'.  Since the left hand side of the "or" condition has
     succeeded for `./src/emacs', it is not necessary to evaluate the
     right-hand-side (`-print') at all for this particular file.  If
     you wanted to print that directory name you could use either an
     extra `-print' action:

	  find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune -print -o -print

     or use the comma operator:

	  find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune , -print

     If the `-depth' option is in effect, the subdirectories will have
     already been visited in any case.	Hence `-prune' has no effect
     and returns false.

 -- Action: -quit
     Exit immediately (with return value zero if no errors have
     occurred).	 No child processes will be left running, but no more
     files specified on the command line will be processed.  For
     example, `find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit' will print only
     `/tmp/foo'.  Any command lines which have been built by `-exec ...
     +' or `-execdir ... +' are invoked before the program is
     executed.

 -- Option: -noleaf
     Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
     subdirectories than their hard link count.	 This option is needed
     when searching filesystems that do not follow the Unix
     directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems or
     AFS volume mount points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
     filesystem has at least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'	 entry.
     Additionally, its subdirectories (if any) each have a `..'	 entry
     linked to that directory.	When `find' is examining a directory,
     after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's
     link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in the directory
     are non-directories ("leaf" files in the directory tree).	If only
     the files' names need to be examined, there is no need to stat
     them; this gives a significant increase in search speed.

 -- Option: -ignore_readdir_race
     If a file disappears after its name has been read from a directory
     but before `find' gets around to examining the file with `stat',
     don't issue an error message.  If you don't specify this option, an
     error message will be issued.  This option can be useful in system
     scripts (cron scripts, for example) that examine areas of the
     filesystem that change frequently (mail queues, temporary
     directories, and so forth), because this scenario is common for
     those sorts of directories.  Completely silencing error messages
     from `find' is undesirable, so this option neatly solves the
     problem.  There is no way to search one part of the filesystem
     with this option on and part of it with this option off, though.
     When this option is turned on and find discovers that one of the
     start-point files specified on the command line does not exist, no
     error message will be issued.


 -- Option: -noignore_readdir_race
     This option reverses the effect of the `-ignore_readdir_race'
     option.

File: find.info,  Node: Filesystems,  Next: Combining Primaries With Operators,	 Prev: Directories,  Up: Finding Files

2.10 Filesystems
================

A "filesystem" is a section of a disk, either on the local host or
mounted from a remote host over a network.  Searching network
filesystems can be slow, so it is common to make `find' avoid them.

   There are two ways to avoid searching certain filesystems.  One way
is to tell `find' to only search one filesystem:

 -- Option: -xdev
 -- Option: -mount
     Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  These options are
     synonyms.

   The other way is to check the type of filesystem each file is on, and
not descend directories that are on undesirable filesystem types:

 -- Test: -fstype type
     True if the file is on a filesystem of type TYPE.	The valid
     filesystem types vary among different versions of Unix; an
     incomplete list of filesystem types that are accepted on some
     version of Unix or another is:
	  ext2 ext3 proc sysfs ufs 4.2 4.3 nfs tmp mfs S51K S52K
     You can use `-printf' with the `%F' directive to see the types of
     your filesystems.	The `%D' directive shows the device number.
     *Note Print File Information::.  `-fstype' is usually used with
     `-prune' to avoid searching remote filesystems (*note
     Directories::).

File: find.info,  Node: Combining Primaries With Operators,  Prev: Filesystems,	 Up: Finding Files

2.11 Combining Primaries With Operators
=======================================

Operators build a complex expression from tests and actions.  The
operators are, in order of decreasing precedence:

`( EXPR )'
     Force precedence.	True if EXPR is true.

`! EXPR'
`-not EXPR'
     True if EXPR is false.  In some shells, it is necessary to protect
     the `!' from shell interpretation by quoting it.

`EXPR1 EXPR2'
`EXPR1 -a EXPR2'
`EXPR1 -and EXPR2'
     And; EXPR2 is not evaluated if EXPR1 is false.

`EXPR1 -o EXPR2'
`EXPR1 -or EXPR2'
     Or; EXPR2 is not evaluated if EXPR1 is true.

`EXPR1 , EXPR2'
     List; both EXPR1 and EXPR2 are always evaluated.  True if EXPR2 is
     true.  The value of EXPR1 is discarded.  This operator lets you do
     multiple independent operations on one traversal, without
     depending on whether other operations succeeded.  The two
     operations EXPR1 and EXPR2 are not always fully independent, since
     EXPR1 might have side effects like touching or deleting files, or
     it might use `-prune' which would also affect EXPR2.

   `find' searches the directory tree rooted at each file name by
evaluating the expression from left to right, according to the rules of
precedence, until the outcome is known (the left hand side is false for
`-and', true for `-or'), at which point `find' moves on to the next
file name.

   There are two other tests that can be useful in complex expressions:

 -- Test: -true
     Always true.

 -- Test: -false
     Always false.

File: find.info,  Node: Actions,  Next: Databases,  Prev: Finding Files,  Up: Top

3 Actions
*********

There are several ways you can print information about the files that
match the criteria you gave in the `find' expression.  You can print
the information either to the standard output or to a file that you
name.  You can also execute commands that have the file names as
arguments.  You can use those commands as further filters to select
files.

* Menu:

* Print File Name::
* Print File Information::
* Run Commands::
* Delete Files::
* Adding Tests::

File: find.info,  Node: Print File Name,  Next: Print File Information,	 Up: Actions

3.1 Print File Name
===================

 -- Action: -print
     True; print the entire file name on the standard output, followed
     by a newline.  If there is the faintest possibility that one of
     the files for which you are searching might contain a newline, you
     should use `-print0' instead.

 -- Action: -fprint file
     True; print the entire file name into file FILE, followed by a
     newline.  If FILE does not exist when `find' is run, it is
     created; if it does exist, it is truncated to 0 bytes.  The named
     output file is always created, even if no output is sent to it.
     The file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are handled
     specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error
     output, respectively.

     If there is the faintest possibility that one of the files for
     which you are searching might contain a newline, you should use
     `-fprint0' instead.

File: find.info,  Node: Print File Information,	 Next: Run Commands,  Prev: Print File Name,  Up: Actions

3.2 Print File Information
==========================

 -- Action: -ls
     True; list the current file in `ls -dils' format on the standard
     output.  The output looks like this:

	  204744   17 -rw-r--r--   1 djm      staff	  17337 Nov  2	1992 ./lwall-quotes

     The fields are:

       1. The inode number of the file.	 *Note Hard Links::, for how to
	  find files based on their inode number.

       2. the number of blocks in the file.  The block counts are of 1K
	  blocks, unless the environment variable `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is
	  set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.	*Note Size::,
	  for how to find files based on their size.

       3. The file's type and permissions.  The type is shown as a dash
	  for a regular file; for other file types, a letter like for
	  `-type' is used (*note Type::).  The permissions are read,
	  write, and execute for the file's owner, its group, and other
	  users, respectively; a dash means the permission is not
	  granted.  *Note File Permissions::, for more details about
	  file permissions.  *Note Permissions::, for how to find files
	  based on their permissions.

       4. The number of hard links to the file.

       5. The user who owns the file.

       6. The file's group.

       7. The file's size in bytes.

       8. The date the file was last modified.

       9. The file's name.  `-ls' quotes non-printable characters in the
	  file names using C-like backslash escapes.  This may change
	  soon, as the treatment of unprintable characters is
	  harmonised for `-ls', `-fls', `-print', `-fprint', `-printf'
	  and `-fprintf'.

 -- Action: -fls file
     True; like `-ls' but write to FILE like `-fprint' (*note Print
     File Name::).  The named output file is always created, even if no
     output is sent to it.

 -- Action: -printf format
     True; print FORMAT on the standard output, interpreting `'
     escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
     specified as with the `printf' C function.	 Format flags (like `#'
     for example) may not work as you expect because many of the
     fields, even numeric ones, are printed with %s.  Numeric flags
     which are affected in this way include G, U, b, D, k and n.  This
     difference in behaviour means though that the format flag `-' will
     work; it forces left-alignment of the field.  Unlike `-print',
     `-printf' does not add a newline at the end of the string.	 If you
     want a newline at the end of the string, add a `
'.

 -- Action: -fprintf file format
     True; like `-printf' but write to FILE like `-fprint' (*note Print
     File Name::).  The output file is always created, even if no
     output is ever sent to it.

* Menu:

* Escapes::
* Format Directives::
* Time Formats::

File: find.info,  Node: Escapes,  Next: Format Directives,  Up: Print File Information

3.2.1 Escapes
-------------

The escapes that `-printf' and `-fprintf' recognise are:

`a'
     Alarm bell.

`'
     Backspace.

`c'
     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

`f'
     Form feed.

`
'
     Newline.

`
'
     Carriage return.

`	'
     Horizontal tab.

`v'
     Vertical tab.

`\'
     A literal backslash (`').

`\0'
     ASCII NUL.

`NNN'
     The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

   A `' character followed by any other character is treated as an
ordinary character, so they both are printed, and a warning message is
printed to the standard error output (because it was probably a typo).

File: find.info,  Node: Format Directives,  Next: Time Formats,	 Prev: Escapes,	 Up: Print File Information

3.2.2 Format Directives
-----------------------

`-printf' and `-fprintf' support the following format directives to
print information about the file being processed.  The C `printf'
function, field width and precision specifiers are supported, as
applied to string (%s) types. That is, you can specify "minimum field
width"."maximum field width" for each directive.  Format flags (like
`#' for example) may not work as you expect because many of the fields,
even numeric ones, are printed with %s.	 The format flag `-' does work;
it forces left-alignment of the field.

   `%%' is a literal percent sign.  A `%' character followed by an
unrecognised character (i.e., not a known directive or `printf' field
width and precision specifier), is discarded (but the unrecognised
character is printed), and a warning message is printed to the standard
error output (because it was probably a typo).	Don't rely on this
behaviour, because other directives may be added in the future.

   A `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined behaviour
since there is no following character.	In some locales, it may hide
your door keys, while in others it may remove the final page from the
novel you are reading.

* Menu:

* Name Directives::
* Ownership Directives::
* Size Directives::
* Location Directives::
* Time Directives::
* Formatting Flags::

File: find.info,  Node: Name Directives,  Next: Ownership Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.2.1 Name Directives
.......................

`%p'
     File's name (not the absolute path name, but the name of the file
     as it was encountered by `find' - that is, as a relative path from
     one of the starting points).

`%f'
     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last
     element).

`%h'
     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last element and
     the slash before it).  If the file's name contains no slashes (for
     example because it was named on the command line and is in the
     current working directory), then "%h" expands to ".".  This
     prevents "%h/%f" expanding to "/foo", which would be surprising
     and probably not desirable.

`%P'
     File's name with the name of the command line argument under which
     it was found removed from the beginning.

`%H'
     Command line argument under which file was found.

File: find.info,  Node: Ownership Directives,  Next: Size Directives,  Prev: Name Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.2.2 Ownership Directives
............................

`%g'
     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

`%G'
     File's numeric group ID.

`%u'
     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

`%U'
     File's numeric user ID.

`%m'
     File's permissions (in octal).  If you always want to have a
     leading zero on the number, use the '#' format flag, for example
     '%#m'.

     The permission numbers used are the traditional Unix permission
     numbers, which will be as expected on most systems, but if your
     system's permission bit layout differs from the traditional Unix
     semantics, you will see a difference between the mode as printed by
     `%m' and the mode as it appears in `struct stat'.

`%M'
     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for `ls').  This
     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

File: find.info,  Node: Size Directives,  Next: Location Directives,  Prev: Ownership Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.2.3 Size Directives
.......................

`%k'
     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since
     disk space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size
     this is usually greater than %s/1024, but it can also be smaller
     if the file is a sparse file (that is, it has "holes").

`%b'
     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.
     Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block
     size this is usually greater than %s/1024, but it can also be
     smaller if the file is a sparse file (that is, it has "holes").

`%s'
     File's size in bytes.

File: find.info,  Node: Location Directives,  Next: Time Directives,  Prev: Size Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.2.4 Location Directives
...........................

`%d'
     File's depth in the directory tree (depth below a file named on the
     command line, not depth below the root directory).	 Files named on
     the command line have a depth of 0.  Subdirectories immediately
     below them have a depth of 1, and so on.

`%D'
     The device number on which the file exists (the `st_dev' field of
     `struct stat'), in decimal.

`%F'
     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for
     `-fstype' (*note Directories::).

`%l'
     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic
     link).

`%i'
     File's inode number (in decimal).

`%n'
     Number of hard links to file.

`%y'
     Type of the file as used with `-type'.  If the file is a symbolic
     link, `l' will be printed.

`%Y'
     Type of the file as used with `-type'.  If the file is a symbolic
     link, it is dereferenced.	If the file is a broken symbolic link,
     `N' is printed.


File: find.info,  Node: Time Directives,  Next: Formatting Flags,  Prev: Location Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.2.5 Time Directives
.......................

Some of these directives use the C `ctime' function.  Its output
depends on the current locale, but it typically looks like

     Wed Nov  2 00:42:36 1994

`%a'
     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime'
     function.

`%AK'
     File's last access time in the format specified by K (*note Time
     Formats::).

`%c'
     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C
     `ctime' function.

`%CK'
     File's last status change time in the format specified by K (*note
     Time Formats::).

`%t'
     File's last modification time in the format returned by the C
     `ctime' function.

`%TK'
     File's last modification time in the format specified by K (*note
     Time Formats::).

File: find.info,  Node: Formatting Flags,  Prev: Time Directives,  Up: Format Directives

3.2.3.4 Formatting Flags
........................

The `%m' and `%d' directives support the `#', `0' and `+' flags, but
the other directives do not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
directives that do not support these flags include

   `G', `U', `b', `D', `k' and `n'.

   All fields support the format flag `-', which makes fields
left-aligned.  That is, if the field width is greater than the actual
contents of the field, the requisite number of spaces are printed after
the field content instead of before it.

File: find.info,  Node: Time Formats,  Prev: Format Directives,	 Up: Print File Information

3.2.3 Time Formats
------------------

Below are the formats for the directives `%A', `%C', and `%T', which
print the file's timestamps.  Some of these formats might not be
available on all systems, due to differences in the C `strftime'
function between systems.

* Menu:

* Time Components::
* Date Components::
* Combined Time Formats::

File: find.info,  Node: Time Components,  Next: Date Components,  Up: Time Formats

3.2.3.1 Time Components
.......................

The following format directives print single components of the time.

`H'
     hour (00..23)

`I'
     hour (01..12)

`k'
     hour ( 0..23)

`l'
     hour ( 1..12)

`p'
     locale's AM or PM

`Z'
     time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

`M'
     minute (00..59)

`S'
     second (00..61)

`@'
     seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

File: find.info,  Node: Date Components,  Next: Combined Time Formats,	Prev: Time Components,	Up: Time Formats

3.2.3.2 Date Components
.......................

The following format directives print single components of the date.

`a'
     locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

`A'
     locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

`b'
`h'
     locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

`B'
     locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

`m'
     month (01..12)

`d'
     day of month (01..31)

`w'
     day of week (0..6)

`j'
     day of year (001..366)

`U'
     week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

`W'
     week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

`Y'
     year (1970...)

`y'
     last two digits of year (00..99)

File: find.info,  Node: Combined Time Formats,	Prev: Date Components,	Up: Time Formats

3.2.3.3 Combined Time Formats
.............................

The following format directives print combinations of time and date
components.

`r'
     time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

`T'
     time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

`X'
     locale's time representation (H:M:S)

`c'
     locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989)

`D'
     date (mm/dd/yy)

`x'
     locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

`+'
     Date and time, separated by '+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05'.
     The time is given in the current timezone (which may be affected by
     setting the TZ environment variable).  This is a GNU extension.

File: find.info,  Node: Run Commands,  Next: Delete Files,  Prev: Print File Information,  Up: Actions

3.3 Run Commands
================

You can use the list of file names created by `find' or `locate' as
arguments to other commands.  In this way you can perform arbitrary
actions on the files.

* Menu:

* Single File::
* Multiple Files::
* Querying::

File: find.info,  Node: Single File,  Next: Multiple Files,  Up: Run Commands

3.3.1 Single File
-----------------

Here is how to run a command on one file at a time.

 -- Action: -execdir command ;
     Execute COMMAND; true if zero status is returned.	`find' takes
     all arguments after `-exec' to be part of the command until an
     argument consisting of `;' is reached.  It replaces the string
     `{}' by the current file name being processed everywhere it occurs
     in the command.  Both of these constructions need to be escaped
     (with a `') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the
     shell.  The command is executed in the directory in which `find'
     was run.

     For example, to compare each C header file in or below the current
     directory with the file `/tmp/master':

	  find . -name '*.h' -execdir diff -u '{}' /tmp/master ';'

   If you use``-execdir', you must ensure that the current directory is
not on $PATH, because otherwise an attacker could make `find' run
commands of their choice simply by leaving a suitably-named file in the
right directory.  GNU find will refuse to run if you use `-execdir' and
the current directory is in $PATH.

   Another similar option, `-exec' is supported, but is less secure.
*Note Security Considerations::, for a discussion of the security
problems surrounding `-exec'.

 -- Action: -exec command ;
     This insecure variant of the `-execdir' action is specified by
     POSIX.  The main difference is that the command is executed in the
     directory from which `find' was invoked, meaning that `{}' is
     expanded to a relative path starting with the name of one of the
     starting directories, rather than just the basename of the matched
     file.

     While some implementations of `find' replace the `{}' only where
     it appears on its own in an argument, GNU `find' replaces `{}'
     wherever it appears.

File: find.info,  Node: Multiple Files,	 Next: Querying,  Prev: Single File,  Up: Run Commands

3.3.2 Multiple Files
--------------------

Sometimes you need to process files one at a time.  But usually this is
not necessary, and, it is faster to run a command on as many files as
possible at a time, rather than once per file.	Doing this saves on the
time it takes to start up the command each time.

   The `-execdir' and `-exec' actions have variants that build command
lines containing as many matched files as possible.

 -- Action: -execdir command {} +
     This works as for `-execdir command ;', except that the `{}' at
     the end of the command is expanded to a list of names of matching
     files.  This expansion is done in such a way as to avoid exceeding
     the maximum command line length available on the system.  Only one
     `{}' is allowed within the command, and it must appear at the end,
     immediately before the `+'.  A `+' appearing in any position other
     than immediately after `{}' is not considered to be special (that
     is, it does not terminate the command).

 -- Action: -exec command {} +
     This insecure variant of the `-execdir' action is specified by
     POSIX.  The main difference is that the command is executed in the
     directory from which `find' was invoked, meaning that `{}' is
     expanded to a relative path starting with the name of one of the
     starting directories, rather than just the basename of the matched
     file.

   Before `find' exits, any partially-built command lines are executed.
This happens even if the exit was caused by the `-quit' action.
However, some types of error (for example not being able to invoke
`stat()' on the current directory) can cause an immediate fatal exit.
In this situation, any partially-built command lines will not be
invoked (this prevents possible infinite loops).

   At first sight, it looks like the list of filenames to be processed
can only be at the end of the command line, and that this might be a
problem for some comamnds (`cp' and `rsync' for example).

   However, there is a slightly obscure but powerful workarouund for
this problem which takes advantage of the behaviour of `sh -c':-

     find startpoint -tests ... -exec sh -c 'scp "$@" remote:/dest' sh {} +

   In the example above, the filenames we want to work on need to occur
on the `scp' command line before the name of the destination.  We use
the shell to invoke the command `scp "$@" remote:/dest' and the shell
expands `"$@"' to the list of filenames we want to process.

   Another, but less secure, way to run a command on more than one file
at once, is to use the `xargs' command, which is invoked like this:

     xargs [OPTION...] [COMMAND [INITIAL-ARGUMENTS]]

   `xargs' normally reads arguments from the standard input.  These
arguments are delimited by blanks (which can be protected with double
or single quotes or a backslash) or newlines.  It executes the COMMAND
(default is `/bin/echo') one or more times with any INITIAL-ARGUMENTS
followed by arguments read from standard input.	 Blank lines on the
standard input are ignored.

   Instead of blank-delimited names, it is safer to use `find -print0'
or `find -fprint0' and process the output by giving the `-0' or
`--null' option to GNU `xargs', GNU `tar', GNU `cpio', or `perl'.  The
`locate' command also has a `-0' or `--null' option which does the same
thing.

   You can use shell command substitution (backquotes) to process a list
of arguments, like this:

     grep -l sprintf `find $HOME -name '*.c' -print`

   However, that method produces an error if the length of the `.c'
file names exceeds the operating system's command line length limit.
`xargs' avoids that problem by running the command as many times as
necessary without exceeding the limit:

     find $HOME -name '*.c' -print | xargs grep -l sprintf

   However, if the command needs to have its standard input be a
terminal (`less', for example), you have to use the shell command
substitution method or use the `--arg-file' option of `xargs'.

   The `xargs' command will process all its input, building command
lines and executing them, unless one of the commands exits with a
status of 255 (this will cause xargs to issue an error message and
stop) or it reads a line contains the end of file string specified with
the `--eof' option.

* Menu:

* Unsafe File Name Handling::
* Safe File Name Handling::
* Unusual Characters in File Names::
* Limiting Command Size::
* Interspersing File Names::

File: find.info,  Node: Unsafe File Name Handling,  Next: Safe File Name Handling,  Up: Multiple Files

3.3.2.1 Unsafe File Name Handling
.................................

Because file names can contain quotes, backslashes, blank characters,
and even newlines, it is not safe to process them using `xargs' in its
default mode of operation.  But since most files' names do not contain
blanks, this problem occurs only infrequently.	If you are only
searching through files that you know have safe names, then you need
not be concerned about it.

   In many applications, if `xargs' botches processing a file because
its name contains special characters, some data might be lost.	The
importance of this problem depends on the importance of the data and
whether anyone notices the loss soon enough to correct it.  However,
here is an extreme example of the problems that using blank-delimited
names can cause.  If the following command is run daily from `cron',
then any user can remove any file on the system:

     find / -name '#*' -atime +7 -print | xargs rm

   For example, you could do something like this:

     eg$ echo > '#
     vmunix'

and then `cron' would delete `/vmunix', if it ran `xargs' with `/' as
its current directory.

   To delete other files, for example `/u/joeuser/.plan', you could do
this:

     eg$ mkdir '#
     '
     eg$ cd '#
     '
     eg$ mkdir u u/joeuser u/joeuser/.plan'
     '
     eg$ echo > u/joeuser/.plan'
     /#foo'
     eg$ cd ..
     eg$ find . -name '#*' -print | xargs echo
     ./# ./# /u/joeuser/.plan /#foo

File: find.info,  Node: Safe File Name Handling,  Next: Unusual Characters in File Names,  Prev: Unsafe File Name Handling,  Up: Multiple Files

3.3.2.2 Safe File Name Handling
...............................

Here is how to make `find' output file names so that they can be used
by other programs without being mangled or misinterpreted.  You can
process file names generated this way by giving the `-0' or `--null'
option to GNU `xargs', GNU `tar', GNU `cpio', or `perl'.

 -- Action: -print0
     True; print the entire file name on the standard output, followed
     by a null character.

 -- Action: -fprint0 file
     True; like `-print0' but write to FILE like `-fprint' (*note Print
     File Name::).  The output file is always created.

   As of findutils version 4.2.4, the `locate' program also has a
`--null' option which does the same thing.  For similarity with
`xargs', the short form of the option `-0' can also be used.

   If you want to be able to handle file names safely but need to run
commands which want to be connected to a terminal on their input, you
can use the `--arg-file' option to `xargs' like this:

     find / -name xyzzy -print0 > list
     xargs --null --arg-file=list munge

   The example above runs the `munge' program on all the files named
`xyzzy' that we can find, but `munge''s input will still be the
terminal (or whatever the shell was using as standard input).  If your
shell has the "process substitution" feature `<(...)', you can do this
in just one step:

     xargs --null --arg-file=<(find / -name xyzzy -print0) munge

File: find.info,  Node: Unusual Characters in File Names,  Next: Limiting Command Size,	 Prev: Safe File Name Handling,	 Up: Multiple Files

3.3.2.3 Unusual Characters in File Names
........................................

As discussed above, you often need to be careful about how the names of
files are handled by `find' and other programs.	 If the output of
`find' is not going to another program but instead is being shown on a
terminal, this can still be a problem.	For example, some character
sequences can reprogram the function keys on some terminals.  *Note
Security Considerations::, for a discussion of other security problems
relating to `find'.

   Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as
described below.

`-print0'
`-fprint0'
     Always print the exact file name, unchanged, even if the output is
     going to a terminal.

`-ok'
`-okdir'
     Always print the exact file name, unchanged.  This will probably
     change in a future release.

`-ls'
`-fls'
     Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash, and
     double quote characters are printed using C-style escaping (for
     example `f', `"').  Other unusual characters are printed using
     an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for `-ls' and `-fls'
     these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are printed
     as-is.

`-printf'
`-fprintf'
     If the output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.
     Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use:

    %D, %F, %H, %Y, %y
	  These expand to values which are not under control of files'
	  owners, and so are printed as-is.

    %a, %b, %c, %d, %g, %G, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t, %u, %U
	  These have values which are under the control of files'
	  owners but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the
	  terminal, and so these are printed as-is.

    %f, %h, %l, %p, %P
	  The output of these directives is quoted if the output is
	  going to a terminal.

	  This quoting is performed in the same way as for GNU `ls'.
	  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for
	  `-ls' and `fls'.  If you are able to decide what format to
	  use for the output of `find' then it is normally better to
	  use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file names
	  can contain white space and newline characters.

`-print'
`-fprint'
     Quoting is handled in the same way as for the `%p' directive of
     `-printf' and `-fprintf'.	If you are using `find' in a script or
     in a situation where the matched files might have arbitrary names,
     you should consider using `-print0' instead of `-print'.

   The `locate' program quotes and escapes unusual characters in file
names in the same way as `find''s `-print' action.

   The behaviours described above may change soon, as the treatment of
unprintable characters is harmonised for `-ls', `-fls', `-print',
`-fprint', `-printf' and `-fprintf'.

File: find.info,  Node: Limiting Command Size,	Next: Interspersing File Names,	 Prev: Unusual Characters in File Names,  Up: Multiple Files

3.3.2.4 Limiting Command Size
.............................

`xargs' gives you control over how many arguments it passes to the
command each time it executes it.  By default, it uses up to `ARG_MAX'
- 2k, or 128k, whichever is smaller, characters per command.  It uses
as many lines and arguments as fit within that limit.  The following
options modify those values.

`--no-run-if-empty'
`-r'
     If the standard input does not contain any nonblanks, do not run
     the command.  By default, the command is run once even if there is
     no input.	This option is a GNU extension.

`--max-lines[=MAX-LINES]'
`-L MAX-LINES'
`-l[MAX-LINES]'
     Use at most MAX-LINES nonblank input lines per command line;
     MAX-LINES defaults to 1 if omitted; omitting the argument is not
     allowed in the case of the `-L' option.  Trailing blanks cause an
     input line to be logically continued on the next input line, for
     the purpose of counting the lines.	 Implies `-x'.	The preferred
     name for this option is `-L' as this is specified by POSIX.

`--max-args=MAX-ARGS'
`-n MAX-ARGS'
     Use at most MAX-ARGS arguments per command line.  Fewer than
     MAX-ARGS arguments will be used if the size (see the `-s' option)
     is exceeded, unless the `-x' option is given, in which case
     `xargs' will exit.

`--max-chars=MAX-CHARS'
`-s MAX-CHARS'
     Use at most MAX-CHARS characters per command line, including the
     command initial arguments and the terminating nulls at the ends of
     the argument strings.  If you specify a value for this option
     which is too large or small, a warning message is printed and the
     appropriate upper or lower limit is used instead.	You can use
     `--show-limits' option to understand the command-line limits
     applying to `xargs' and how this is affected by any other options.

`--max-procs=MAX-PROCS'
`-P MAX-PROCS'
     Run up to MAX-PROCS processes at a time; the default is 1.	 If
     MAX-PROCS is 0, `xargs' will run as many processes as possible at
     a time.  Use the `-n', `-s', or `-L' option with `-P'; otherwise
     chances are that the command will be run only once.

File: find.info,  Node: Interspersing File Names,  Prev: Limiting Command Size,	 Up: Multiple Files

3.3.2.5 Interspersing File Names
................................

`xargs' can insert the name of the file it is processing between
arguments you give for the command.  Unless you also give options to
limit the command size (*note Limiting Command Size::), this mode of
operation is equivalent to `find -exec' (*note Single File::).

`--replace[=REPLACE-STR]'
`-I REPLACE-STR'
`-i REPLACE-STR'
     Replace occurrences of REPLACE-STR in the initial arguments with
     names read from the input.	 Also, unquoted blanks do not terminate
     arguments; instead, the input is split at newlines only.  For the
     `-i' option, if REPLACE-STR is omitted for `--replace' or `-i', it
     defaults to `{}' (like for `find -exec').	Implies `-x' and `-l
     1'.  `-i' is deprecated in favour of `-I'. As an example, to sort
     each file in the `bills' directory, leaving the output in that
     file name with `.sorted' appended, you could do:

	  find bills -type f | xargs -I XX sort -o XX.sorted XX

     The equivalent command using `find -execdir' is:

	  find bills -type f -execdir sort -o '{}.sorted' '{}' ';'

   When you use the `-I' option, each line read from the input is
buffered internally.  This means that there is an upper limit on the
length of input line that xargs will accept when used with the `-I'
option.	 To work around this limitation, you can use the `-s' option to
increase the amount of buffer space that xargs uses, and you can also
use an extra invocation of xargs to ensure that very long lines do not
occur.	For example:

     somecommand | xargs -s 50000 echo | xargs -I '{}' -s 100000 rm '{}'

   Here, the first invocation of `xargs' has no input line length limit
because it doesn't use the `-I' option. The second invocation of
`xargs' does have such a limit, but we have ensured that the it never
encounters a line which is longer than it can handle.

   This is not an ideal solution.  Instead, the `-I' option should not
impose a line length limit (apart from any limit imposed by the
operating system) and so one might consider this limitation to be a
bug.  A better solution would be to allow `xargs -I' to automatically
move to a larger value for the `-s' option when this is needed.

   This sort of problem doesn't occur with the output of `find' because
it emits just one filename per line.

File: find.info,  Node: Querying,  Prev: Multiple Files,  Up: Run Commands

3.3.3 Querying
--------------

To ask the user whether to execute a command on a single file, you can
use the `find' primary `-okdir' instead of `-execdir', and the `find'
primary `-ok' instead of `-exec':

 -- Action: -okdir command ;
     Like `-execdir' (*note Single File::), but ask the user first (on
     the standard input); if the response does not start with `y' or
     `Y', do not run the command, and return false.  If the command is
     run, its standard input is redirected from `/dev/null'.

 -- Action: -ok command ;
     This insecure variant of the `-okdir' action is specified by
     POSIX.  The main difference is that the command is executed in the
     directory from which `find' was invoked, meaning that `{}' is
     expanded to a relative path starting with the name of one of the
     starting directories, rather than just the basename of the matched
     file.  If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from
     `/dev/null'.

   When processing multiple files with a single command, to query the
user you give `xargs' the following option.  When using this option,
you might find it useful to control the number of files processed per
invocation of the command (*note Limiting Command Size::).

`--interactive'
`-p'
     Prompt the user about whether to run each command line and read a
     line from the terminal.  Only run the command line if the response
     starts with `y' or `Y'.  Implies `-t'.

File: find.info,  Node: Delete Files,  Next: Adding Tests,  Prev: Run Commands,	 Up: Actions

3.4 Delete Files
================

 -- Action: -delete
     Delete files or directories; true if removal succeeded.  If the
     removal failed, an error message is issued.

     The use of the `-delete' action on the command line automatically
     turns on the `-depth' option (*note find Expressions::).

File: find.info,  Node: Adding Tests,  Prev: Delete Files,  Up: Actions

3.5 Adding Tests
================

You can test for file attributes that none of the `find' builtin tests
check.	To do this, use `xargs' to run a program that filters a list of
files printed by `find'.  If possible, use `find' builtin tests to pare
down the list, so the program run by `xargs' has less work to do.  The
tests builtin to `find' will likely run faster than tests that other
programs perform.

   For reasons of efficiency it is often useful to limit the number of
times an external program has to be run.  For this reason, it is often
a good idea to implement "extended" tests by using `xargs'.

   For example, here is a way to print the names of all of the
unstripped binaries in the `/usr/local' directory tree.	 Builtin tests
avoid running `file' on files that are not regular files or are not
executable.

     find /usr/local -type f -perm /a=x | xargs file |
       grep 'not stripped' | cut -d: -f1

The `cut' program removes everything after the file name from the
output of `file'.

   However, using `xargs' can present important security problems
(*note Security Considerations::).  These can be avoided by using
`-execdir'.  The `-execdir' action is also a useful way of putting your
own test in the middle of a set of other tests or actions for `find'
(for example, you might want to use `-prune').

   To place a special test somewhere in the middle of a `find'
expression, you can use `-execdir' (or, less securely, `-exec') to run
a program that performs the test.  Because `-execdir' evaluates to the
exit status of the executed program, you can use a program (which can
be a shell script) that tests for a special attribute and make it exit
with a true (zero) or false (non-zero) status.	It is a good idea to
place such a special test _after_ the builtin tests, because it starts
a new process which could be avoided if a builtin test evaluates to
false.

   Here is a shell script called `unstripped' that checks whether its
argument is an unstripped binary file:

     #! /bin/sh
     file "$1" | grep -q "not stripped"

   This script relies on the shell exiting with the status of the last
command in the pipeline, in this case `grep'.  The `grep' command exits
with a true status if it found any matches, false if not.  Here is an
example of using the script (assuming it is in your search path).  It
lists the stripped executables (and shell scripts) in the file `sbins'
and the unstripped ones in `ubins'.

     find /usr/local -type f -perm /a=x 
       ( -execdir unstripped '{}' ; -fprint ubins -o -fprint sbins )

File: find.info,  Node: Databases,  Next: File Permissions,  Prev: Actions,  Up: Top

4 File Name Databases
*********************

The file name databases used by `locate' contain lists of files that
were in particular directory trees when the databases were last
updated.  The file name of the default database is determined when
`locate' and `updatedb' are configured and installed.  The frequency
with which the databases are updated and the directories for which they
contain entries depend on how often `updatedb' is run, and with which
arguments.

   You can obtain some statistics about the databases by using `locate
--statistics'.

* Menu:

* Database Locations::
* Database Formats::
* Newline Handling::

File: find.info,  Node: Database Locations,  Next: Database Formats,  Up: Databases

4.1 Database Locations
======================

There can be multiple file name databases.  Users can select which
databases `locate' searches using the `LOCATE_PATH' environment
variable or a command line option.  The system administrator can choose
the file name of the default database, the frequency with which the
databases are updated, and the directories for which they contain
entries.  File name databases are updated by running the `updatedb'
program, typically nightly.

   In networked environments, it often makes sense to build a database
at the root of each filesystem, containing the entries for that
filesystem.  `updatedb' is then run for each filesystem on the
fileserver where that filesystem is on a local disk, to prevent
thrashing the network.

   *Note Invoking updatedb::, for the description of the options to
`updatedb', which specify which directories would each database contain
entries for.

File: find.info,  Node: Database Formats,  Next: Newline Handling,  Prev: Database Locations,  Up: Databases

4.2 Database Formats
====================

The file name databases contain lists of files that were in particular
directory trees when the databases were last updated.  The file name
database format changed starting with GNU `locate' version 4.0 to allow
machines with different byte orderings to share the databases.	The new
GNU `locate' can read both the old and new database formats.  However,
old versions of `locate' and `find' produce incorrect results if given
a new-format database.

   Support for the old database format will eventually be discontinued,
first in `updatedb' and later in `xargs'.

   If you run `locate --statistics', the resulting summary indicates
the type of each `locate' database.

* Menu:

* New Database Format::
* Sample Database::
* Old Database Format::

File: find.info,  Node: New Database Format,  Next: Sample Database,  Up: Database Formats

4.2.1 New Database Format
-------------------------

`updatedb' runs a program called `frcode' to "front-compress" the list
of file names, which reduces the database size by a factor of 4 to 5.
Front-compression (also known as incremental encoding) works as follows.

   The database entries are a sorted list (case-insensitively, for
users' convenience).  Since the list is sorted, each entry is likely to
share a prefix (initial string) with the previous entry.  Each database
entry begins with an offset-differential count byte, which is the
additional number of characters of prefix of the preceding entry to use
beyond the number that the preceding entry is using of its predecessor.
(The counts can be negative.)  Following the count is a
null-terminated ASCII remainder--the part of the name that follows the
shared prefix.

   If the offset-differential count is larger than can be stored in a
byte (+/-127), the byte has the value 0x80 and the count follows in a
2-byte word, with the high byte first (network byte order).

   Every database begins with a dummy entry for a file called
`LOCATE02', which `locate' checks for to ensure that the database file
has the correct format; it ignores the entry in doing the search.

   Databases cannot be concatenated together, even if the first (dummy)
entry is trimmed from all but the first database.  This is because the
offset-differential count in the first entry of the second and
following databases will be wrong.

   In the output of `locate --statistics', the new database format is
referred to as `LOCATE02'.

File: find.info,  Node: Sample Database,  Next: Old Database Format,  Prev: New Database Format,  Up: Database Formats

4.2.2 Sample Database
---------------------

Sample input to `frcode':

     /usr/src
     /usr/src/cmd/aardvark.c
     /usr/src/cmd/armadillo.c
     /usr/tmp/zoo

   Length of the longest prefix of the preceding entry to share:

     0 /usr/src
     8 /cmd/aardvark.c
     14 rmadillo.c
     5 tmp/zoo

   Output from `frcode', with trailing nulls changed to newlines and
count bytes made printable:

     0 LOCATE02
     0 /usr/src
     8 /cmd/aardvark.c
     6 rmadillo.c
     -9 tmp/zoo

   (6 = 14 - 8, and -9 = 5 - 14)

File: find.info,  Node: Old Database Format,  Prev: Sample Database,  Up: Database Formats

4.2.3 Old Database Format
-------------------------

The old database format is used by Unix `locate' and `find' programs
and earlier releases of the GNU ones.  `updatedb' produces this format
if given the `--old-format' option.

   All versions of GNU `locate' prior to 4.2.31 fail to correctly
handle very long file names, possibly leading to security problems
relating to a heap buffer overrun.  *Note Security Considerations for
locate::, for a detailed explanation.

   `updatedb' runs programs called `bigram' and `code' to produce
old-format databases.  The old format differs from the new one in the
following ways.	 Instead of each entry starting with an
offset-differential count byte and ending with a null, byte values from
0 through 28 indicate offset-differential counts from -14 through 14.
The byte value indicating that a long offset-differential count follows
is 0x1e (30), not 0x80.	 The long counts are stored in host byte order,
which is not necessarily network byte order, and host integer word
size, which is usually 4 bytes.	 They also represent a count 14 less
than their value.  The database lines have no termination byte; the
start of the next line is indicated by its first byte having a value <=
30.

   In addition, instead of starting with a dummy entry, the old database
format starts with a 256 byte table containing the 128 most common
bigrams in the file list.  A bigram is a pair of adjacent bytes.  Bytes
in the database that have the high bit set are indexes (with the high
bit cleared) into the bigram table.  The bigram and offset-differential
count coding makes these databases 20-25% smaller than the new format,
but makes them not 8-bit clean.	 Any byte in a file name that is in the
ranges used for the special codes is replaced in the database by a
question mark, which not coincidentally is the shell wildcard to match
a single character.

   The old format therefore cannot faithfully store entries with
non-ASCII characters. It therefore should not be used in
internationalised environments.

   The output of `locate --statistics' will give an incorrect count of
the number of file names containing newlines or high-bit characters for
old-format databases.

File: find.info,  Node: Newline Handling,  Prev: Database Formats,  Up: Databases

4.3 Newline Handling
====================

Within the database, file names are terminated with a null character.
This is the case for both the old and the new format.

   When the new database format is being used, the compression technique
used to generate the database though relies on the ability to sort the
list of files before they are presented to `frcode'.

   If the system's sort command allows its input list of files to be
separated with null characters via the `-z' option, this option is used
and therefore `updatedb' and `locate' will both correctly handle file
names containing newlines.  If the `sort' command lacks support for
this, the list of files is delimited with the newline character,
meaning that parts of file names containing newlines will be
incorrectly sorted.  This can result in both incorrect matches and
incorrect failures to match.

   On the other hand, if you are using the old database format, file
names with embedded newlines are not correctly handled.	 There is no
technical limitation which enforces this, it's just that the `bigram'
program has not been updated to support lists of file names separated
by nulls.

   So, if you are using the new database format (this is the default)
and your system uses GNU `sort', newlines will be correctly handled at
all times.  Otherwise, newlines may not be correctly handled.

File: find.info,  Node: File Permissions,  Next: Reference,  Prev: Databases,  Up: Top

5 File Permissions
******************

Each file has a set of "permissions" that control the kinds of access
that users have to that file.  The permissions for a file are also
called its "access mode".  They can be represented either in symbolic
form or as an octal number.

* Menu:

* Mode Structure::		Structure of file permissions.
* Symbolic Modes::		Mnemonic permissions representation.
* Numeric Modes::		Permissions as octal numbers.

File: find.info,  Node: Mode Structure,	 Next: Symbolic Modes,	Up: File Permissions

5.1 Structure of File Permissions
=================================

There are three kinds of permissions that a user can have for a file:

  1. permission to read the file.  For directories, this means
     permission to list the contents of the directory.

  2. permission to write to (change) the file.	For directories, this
     means permission to create and remove files in the directory.

  3. permission to execute the file (run it as a program).  For
     directories, this means permission to access files in the
     directory.

   There are three categories of users who may have different
permissions to perform any of the above operations on a file:

  1. the file's owner;

  2. other users who are in the file's group;

  3. everyone else.

   Files are given an owner and group when they are created.  Usually
the owner is the current user and the group is the group of the
directory the file is in, but this varies with the operating system, the
file system the file is created on, and the way the file is created.
You can change the owner and group of a file by using the `chown' and
`chgrp' commands.

   In addition to the three sets of three permissions listed above, a
file's permissions have three special components, which affect only
executable files (programs) and, on some systems, directories:

  1. Set the process's effective user ID to that of the file upon
     execution (called the "setuid bit").  No effect on directories.

  2. Set the process's effective group ID to that of the file upon
     execution (called the "setgid bit").  For directories on some
     systems, put files created in the directory into the same group as
     the directory, no matter what group the user who creates them is
     in.

  3. prevent users from removing or renaming a file in a directory
     unless they own the file or the directory; this is called the
     "restricted deletion flag" for the directory.  For regular files
     on some systems, save the program's text image on the swap device
     so it will load more quickly when run; this is called the "sticky
     bit".

   In addition to the permissions listed above, there may be file
attributes specific to the file system, e.g: access control lists
(ACLs), whether a file is compressed, whether a file can be modified
(immutability), whether a file can be dumped.  These are usually set
using programs specific to the file system.  For example:

ext2
     On GNU and GNU/Linux the file permissions ("attributes") specific
     to the ext2 file system are set using `chattr'.

FFS
     On FreeBSD the file permissions ("flags") specific to the FFS file
     system are set using `chrflags'.

   Although a file's permission "bits" allow an operation on that file,
that operation may still fail, because:

   * the file-system-specific permissions do not permit it;

   * the file system is mounted as read-only.

   For example, if the immutable attribute is set on a file, it cannot
be modified, regardless of the fact that you may have just run `chmod
a+w FILE'.

File: find.info,  Node: Symbolic Modes,	 Next: Numeric Modes,  Prev: Mode Structure,  Up: File Permissions

5.2 Symbolic Modes
==================

"Symbolic modes" represent changes to files' permissions as operations
on single-character symbols.  They allow you to modify either all or
selected parts of files' permissions, optionally based on their
previous values, and perhaps on the current `umask' as well (*note
Umask and Protection::).

   The format of symbolic modes is:

     [ugoa...][+-=]PERMS...[,...]

where PERMS is either zero or more letters from the set `rwxXst', or a
single letter from the set `ugo'.

   The following sections describe the operators and other details of
symbolic modes.

* Menu:

* Setting Permissions::		 Basic operations on permissions.
* Copying Permissions::		 Copying existing permissions.
* Changing Special Permissions:: Special permissions.
* Conditional Executability::	 Conditionally affecting executability.
* Multiple Changes::		 Making multiple changes.
* Umask and Protection::	      The effect of the umask.

File: find.info,  Node: Setting Permissions,  Next: Copying Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.1 Setting Permissions
-------------------------

The basic symbolic operations on a file's permissions are adding,
removing, and setting the permission that certain users have to read,
write, and execute the file.  These operations have the following
format:

     USERS OPERATION PERMISSIONS

The spaces between the three parts above are shown for readability only;
symbolic modes cannot contain spaces.

   The USERS part tells which users' access to the file is changed.  It
consists of one or more of the following letters (or it can be empty;
*note Umask and Protection::, for a description of what happens then).
When more than one of these letters is given, the order that they are
in does not matter.

`u'
     the user who owns the file;

`g'
     other users who are in the file's group;

`o'
     all other users;

`a'
     all users; the same as `ugo'.

   The OPERATION part tells how to change the affected users' access to
the file, and is one of the following symbols:

`+'
     to add the PERMISSIONS to whatever permissions the USERS already
     have for the file;

`-'
     to remove the PERMISSIONS from whatever permissions the USERS
     already have for the file;

`='
     to make the PERMISSIONS the only permissions that the USERS have
     for the file.

   The PERMISSIONS part tells what kind of access to the file should be
changed; it is normally zero or more of the following letters.	As with
the USERS part, the order does not matter when more than one letter is
given.	Omitting the PERMISSIONS part is useful only with the `='
operation, where it gives the specified USERS no access at all to the
file.

`r'
     the permission the USERS have to read the file;

`w'
     the permission the USERS have to write to the file;

`x'
     the permission the USERS have to execute the file.

   For example, to give everyone permission to read and write a file,
but not to execute it, use:

     a=rw

   To remove write permission for all users other than the file's
owner, use:

     go-w

The above command does not affect the access that the owner of the file
has to it, nor does it affect whether other users can read or execute
the file.

   To give everyone except a file's owner no permission to do anything
with that file, use the mode below.  Other users could still remove the
file, if they have write permission on the directory it is in.

     go=

Another way to specify the same thing is:

     og-rwx

File: find.info,  Node: Copying Permissions,  Next: Changing Special Permissions,  Prev: Setting Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.2 Copying Existing Permissions
----------------------------------

You can base a file's permissions on its existing permissions.	To do
this, instead of using a series of `r', `w', or `x' letters after the
operator, you use the letter `u', `g', or `o'.	For example, the mode

     o+g

adds the permissions for users who are in a file's group to the
permissions that other users have for the file.	 Thus, if the file
started out as mode 664 (`rw-rw-r--'), the above mode would change it
to mode 666 (`rw-rw-rw-').  If the file had started out as mode 741
(`rwxr----x'), the above mode would change it to mode 745
(`rwxr--r-x').	The `-' and `=' operations work analogously.

File: find.info,  Node: Changing Special Permissions,  Next: Conditional Executability,	 Prev: Copying Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.3 Changing Special Permissions
----------------------------------

In addition to changing a file's read, write, and execute permissions,
you can change its special permissions.	 *Note Mode Structure::, for a
summary of these permissions.

   To change a file's permission to set the user ID on execution, use
`u' in the USERS part of the symbolic mode and `s' in the PERMISSIONS
part.

   To change a file's permission to set the group ID on execution, use
`g' in the USERS part of the symbolic mode and `s' in the PERMISSIONS
part.

   To change a file's permission to set the restricted deletion flag or
sticky bit, omit the USERS part of the symbolic mode (or use `a') and
put `t' in the PERMISSIONS part.

   For example, to add set-user-ID permission to a program, you can use
the mode:

     u+s

   To remove both set-user-ID and set-group-ID permission from it, you
can use the mode:

     ug-s

   To set the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit, you can use the
mode:

     +t

   The combination `o+s' has no effect.	 On GNU systems the
combinations `u+t' and `g+t' have no effect, and `o+t' acts like plain
`+t'.

   The `=' operator is not very useful with special permissions; for
example, the mode:

     o=t

does set the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit, but it also
removes all read, write, and execute permissions that users not in the
file's group might have had for it.

File: find.info,  Node: Conditional Executability,  Next: Multiple Changes,  Prev: Changing Special Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.4 Conditional Executability
-------------------------------

There is one more special type of symbolic permission: if you use `X'
instead of `x', execute permission is affected only if the file is a
directory or already had execute permission.

   For example, this mode:

     a+X

gives all users permission to search directories, or to execute files if
anyone could execute them before.

File: find.info,  Node: Multiple Changes,  Next: Umask and Protection,	Prev: Conditional Executability,  Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.5 Making Multiple Changes
-----------------------------

The format of symbolic modes is actually more complex than described
above (*note Setting Permissions::).  It provides two ways to make
multiple changes to files' permissions.

   The first way is to specify multiple OPERATION and PERMISSIONS parts
after a USERS part in the symbolic mode.

   For example, the mode:

     og+rX-w

gives users other than the owner of the file read permission and, if it
is a directory or if someone already had execute permission to it,
gives them execute permission; and it also denies them write permission
to the file.  It does not affect the permission that the owner of the
file has for it.  The above mode is equivalent to the two modes:

     og+rX
     og-w

   The second way to make multiple changes is to specify more than one
simple symbolic mode, separated by commas.  For example, the mode:

     a+r,go-w

gives everyone permission to read the file and removes write permission
on it for all users except its owner.  Another example:

     u=rwx,g=rx,o=

sets all of the non-special permissions for the file explicitly.  (It
gives users who are not in the file's group no permission at all for
it.)

   The two methods can be combined.  The mode:

     a+r,g+x-w

gives all users permission to read the file, and gives users who are in
the file's group permission to execute it, as well, but not permission
to write to it.	 The above mode could be written in several different
ways; another is:

     u+r,g+rx,o+r,g-w

File: find.info,  Node: Umask and Protection,  Prev: Multiple Changes,	Up: Symbolic Modes

5.2.6 The Umask and Protection
------------------------------

If the USERS part of a symbolic mode is omitted, it defaults to `a'
(affect all users), except that any permissions that are _set_ in the
system variable `umask' are _not affected_.  The value of `umask' can
be set using the `umask' command.  Its default value varies from system
to system.

   Omitting the USERS part of a symbolic mode is generally not useful
with operations other than `+'.	 It is useful with `+' because it
allows you to use `umask' as an easily customizable protection against
giving away more permission to files than you intended to.

   As an example, if `umask' has the value 2, which removes write
permission for users who are not in the file's group, then the mode:

     +w

adds permission to write to the file to its owner and to other users who
are in the file's group, but _not_ to other users.  In contrast, the
mode:

     a+w

ignores `umask', and _does_ give write permission for the file to all
users.

File: find.info,  Node: Numeric Modes,	Prev: Symbolic Modes,  Up: File Permissions

5.3 Numeric Modes
=================

As an alternative to giving a symbolic mode, you can give an octal
(base 8) number that represents the new mode.  This number is always
interpreted in octal; you do not have to add a leading 0, as you do in
C.  Mode 0055 is the same as mode 55.

   A numeric mode is usually shorter than the corresponding symbolic
mode, but it is limited in that it cannot take into account a file's
previous permissions; it can only set them absolutely.

   The permissions granted to the user, to other users in the file's
group, and to other users not in the file's group each require three
bits, which are represented as one octal digit.	 The three special
permissions also require one bit each, and they are as a group
represented as another octal digit.  Here is how the bits are arranged,
starting with the lowest valued bit:

     Value in  Corresponding
     Mode      Permission

	       Other users not in the file's group:
	1      Execute
	2      Write
	4      Read

	       Other users in the file's group:
       10      Execute
       20      Write
       40      Read

	       The file's owner:
      100      Execute
      200      Write
      400      Read

	       Special permissions:
     1000      Restricted deletion flag or sticky bit
     2000      Set group ID on execution
     4000      Set user ID on execution

   For example, numeric mode 4755 corresponds to symbolic mode
`u=rwxs,go=rx', and numeric mode 664 corresponds to symbolic mode
`ug=rw,o=r'.  Numeric mode 0 corresponds to symbolic mode `a='.

File: find.info,  Node: Reference,  Next: Common Tasks,	 Prev: File Permissions,  Up: Top

6 Reference
***********

Below are summaries of the command line syntax for the programs
discussed in this manual.

* Menu:

* Invoking find::
* Invoking locate::
* Invoking updatedb::
* Invoking xargs::
* Regular Expressions::
* Environment Variables::

File: find.info,  Node: Invoking find,	Next: Invoking locate,	Up: Reference

6.1 Invoking `find'
===================

     find [-H] [-L] [-P] [FILE...] [EXPRESSION]

   `find' searches the directory tree rooted at each file name FILE by
evaluating the EXPRESSION on each file it finds in the tree.

   The options `-H', `-L' or `-P' may be specified at the start of the
command line (if none of these is specified, `-P' is assumed).	If you
specify more than one of these options, the last one specified takes
effect (but note that the `-follow' option is equivalent to `-L').  The
arguments after these are a list of files or directories that should be
searched.

   This list of files to search is followed by a list of expressions
describing the files we wish to search for.  The first part of the
expression is recognised by the fact that it begins with `-', `(', `)',
`,', or `!'.  Any arguments after it are the rest of the expression.
If no files are given, the current directory is used.  If no expression
is given, the expression `-print' is used.

   `find' exits with status zero if all files matched are processed
successfully, greater than 0 if errors occur.

   Three options can precede the list of files.	 They determine the way
that symbolic links are handled.

`-P'
     Never follow symbolic links (this is the default), except in the
     case of the `-xtype' predicate.

`-L'
     Always follow symbolic links, except in the case of the `-xtype'
     predicate.

`-H'
     Follow symbolic links specified in the list of files to search, or
     which are otherwise specified on the command line.

   If `find' would follow a symbolic link, but cannot for any reason
(for example, because it has insufficient permissions or the link is
broken), it falls back on using the properties of the symbolic link
itself.	 *Note Symbolic Links:: for a more complete description of how
symbolic links are handled.

   *Note Primary Index::, for a summary of all of the tests, actions,
and options that the expression can contain.  If the expression is
missing, `-print' is assumed.

   `find' also recognises two options for administrative use:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command line usage and exit.

`--version'
`-version'
     Print the version number of `find' and exit.

* Menu:

* Warning Messages::

File: find.info,  Node: Warning Messages,  Up: Invoking find

6.1.1 Warning Messages
----------------------

If there is an error on the `find' command line, an error message is
normally issued.  However, there are some usages that are inadvisable
but which `find' should still accept.  Under these circumstances,
`find' may issue a warning message.  By default, warnings are enabled
only if `find' is being run interactively (specifically, if the
standard input is a terminal).	Warning messages can be controlled
explicitly by the use of options on the command line:

`-warn'
     Issue warning messages where appropriate.

`-nowarn'
     Do not issue warning messages.

   These options take effect at the point on the command line where they
are specified.	Therefore it's not useful to specify `-nowarn' at the
end of the command line.  The warning messages affected by the above
options are triggered by:

   - Use of the `-d' option which is deprecated; please use `-depth'
     instead, since the latter is POSIX-compliant.

   - Use of the `-ipath' option which is deprecated; please use
     `-iwholename' instead.

   - Specifying an option (for example `-mindepth') after a non-option
     (for example `-type' or `-print') on the command line.

   The default behaviour above is designed to work in that way so that
existing shell scripts don't generate spurious errors, but people will
be made aware of the problem.

   Some warning messages are issued for less common or more serious
problems, and consequently cannot be turned off:

   - Use of an unrecognised backslash escape sequence with `-fprintf'

   - Use of an unrecognised formatting directive with `-fprintf'

File: find.info,  Node: Invoking locate,  Next: Invoking updatedb,  Prev: Invoking find,  Up: Reference

6.2 Invoking `locate'
=====================

     locate [OPTION...] PATTERN...

   For each PATTERN given `locate' searches one or more file name
databases returning each match of PATTERN.

   For each PATTERN given `locate' searches one or more file name
databases returning each match of PATTERN.

`--all'
`-A'
     Print only names which match all non-option arguments, not those
     matching one or more non-option arguments.

`--basename'
`-b'
     The specified pattern is matched against just the last component of
     the name of a file in the `locate' database.  This last component
     is also called the "base name".  For example, the base name of
     `/tmp/mystuff/foo.old.c' is `foo.old.c'.  If the pattern contains
     metacharacters, it must match the base name exactly.  If not, it
     must match part of the base name.

`--count'
`-c'
     Instead of printing the matched file names, just print the total
     number of matches found, unless `--print' (`-p') is also present.

`--database=PATH'
`-d PATH'
     Instead of searching the default `locate' database, `locate'
     search the file name databases in PATH, which is a colon-separated
     list of database file names.  You can also use the environment
     variable `LOCATE_PATH' to set the list of database files to
     search.  The option overrides the environment variable if both are
     used.  Empty elements in PATH (that is, a leading or trailing
     colon, or two colons in a row) are taken to stand for the default
     database.	A database can be supplied on stdin, using `-' as an
     element of `path'. If more than one element of `path' is `-',
     later instances are ignored (but a warning message is printed).

`--existing'
`-e'
     Only print out such names which currently exist (instead of such
     names which existed when the database was created).  Note that
     this may slow down the program a lot, if there are many matches in
     the database.  The way in which broken symbolic links are treated
     is affected by the `-L', `-P' and `-H' options.  Please note that
     it is possible for the file to be deleted after `locate' has
     checked that it exists, but before you use it.

`--non-existing'
`-E'
     Only print out such names which currently do not exist (instead of
     such names which existed when the database was created).  Note that
     this may slow down the program a lot, if there are many matches in
     the database.  The way in which broken symbolic links are treated
     is affected by the `-L', `-P' and `-H' options.  Please note that
     `locate' checks that the file does not exist, but a file of the
     same name might be created after `locate''s check but before you
     read `locate''s output.

`--follow'
`-L'
     If testing for the existence of files (with the `-e' or `-E'
     options), consider broken symbolic links to be non-existing.  This
     is the default behaviour.

`--nofollow'
`-P'
`-H'
     If testing for the existence of files (with the `-e' or `-E'
     options), treat broken symbolic links as if they were existing
     files.  The `-H' form of this option is provided purely for
     similarity with `find'; the use of `-P' is recommended over `-H'.

`--ignore-case'
`-i'
     Ignore case distinctions in both the pattern and the file names.

`--limit=N'
`-l N'
     Limit the number of results printed to N.	When used with the
     `--count' option, the value printed will never be larger than this
     limit.

`--mmap'
`-m'
     Accepted but does nothing.	 The option is supported only to provide
     compatibility with BSD's `locate'.

`--null'
`-0'
     Results are separated with the ASCII NUL character rather than the
     newline character.	 To get the full benefit of the use of this
     option, use the new `locate' database format (that is the default
     anyway).

`--print'
`-p'
     Print search results when they normally would not, because of the
     presence of `--statistics' (`-S') or `--count' (`-c').

`--wholename'
`-w'
     The specified pattern is matched against the whole name of the
     file in the `locate' database.  If the pattern contains
     metacharacters, it must match exactly.  If not, it must match part
     of the whole file name.  This is the default behaviour.

`--regex'
`-r'
     Instead of using substring or shell glob matching, the pattern
     specified on the command line is understood to be a regular
     expression.  GNU Emacs-style regular expressions are assumed unless
     the `--regextype' option is also given.  File names from the
     `locate' database are matched using the specified regular
     expression.  If the `-i' flag is also given, matching is
     case-insensitive.	Matches are performed against the whole path
     name, and so by default a pathname will be matched if any part of
     it matches the specified regular expression.  The regular
     expression may use `^' or `$' to anchor a match at the beginning
     or end of a pathname.

`--regextype'
     This option changes the regular expression syntax and behaviour
     used by the `--regex' option.  *Note Regular Expressions:: for more
     information on the regular expression dialects understood by GNU
     findutils.

`--stdio'
`-s'
     Accepted but does nothing.	 The option is supported only to provide
     compatibility with BSD's `locate'.

`--statistics'
`-S'
     Print some summary information for each `locate' database.	 No
     search is performed unless non-option arguments are given.
     Although the BSD version of locate also has this option, the
     format of the output is different.

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command line usage for `locate' and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of `locate' and exit.

File: find.info,  Node: Invoking updatedb,  Next: Invoking xargs,  Prev: Invoking locate,  Up: Reference

6.3 Invoking `updatedb'
=======================

     updatedb [OPTION...]

   `updatedb' creates and updates the database of file names used by
`locate'.  `updatedb' generates a list of files similar to the output
of `find' and then uses utilities for optimizing the database for
performance.  `updatedb' is often run periodically as a `cron' job and
configured with environment variables or command options.  Typically,
operating systems have a shell script that "exports" configurations for
variable definitions and uses another shell script that "sources" the
configuration file into the environment and then executes `updatedb' in
the environment.

   `updatedb' creates and updates the database of file names used by
`locate'.  `updatedb' generates a list of files similar to the output
of `find' and then uses utilities for optimizing the database for
performance.  `updatedb' is often run periodically as a `cron' job and
configured with environment variables or command options.  Typically,
operating systems have a shell script that "exports" configurations for
variable definitions and uses another shell script that "sources" the
configuration file into the environment and then executes `updatedb' in
the environment.

`--findoptions='OPTION...''
     Global options to pass on to `find'.  The environment variable
     `FINDOPTIONS' also sets this value.  Default is none.

`--localpaths='PATH...''
     Non-network directories to put in the database.  Default is `/'.

`--netpaths='PATH...''
     Network (NFS, AFS, RFS, etc.) directories to put in the database.
     The environment variable `NETPATHS' also sets this value.	Default
     is none.

`--prunepaths='PATH...''
     Directories to omit from the database, which would otherwise be
     included.	The environment variable `PRUNEPATHS' also sets this
     value.  Default is `/tmp /usr/tmp /var/tmp /afs'.	The paths are
     used as regular expressions (with `find ... -regex', so you need
     to specify these paths in the same way that `find' will encounter
     them.  This means for example that the paths must not include
     trailing slashes.

`--prunefs='PATH...''
     Filesystems to omit from the database, which would otherwise be
     included.	Note that files are pruned when a filesystem is reached;
     Any filesystem mounted under an undesired filesystem will be
     ignored.  The environment variable `PRUNEFS' also sets this value.
     Default is `nfs NFS proc'.

`--output=DBFILE'
     The database file to build.  Default is system-dependent, but
     typically `/usr/local/var/locatedb'.

`--localuser=USER'
     The user to search the non-network directories as, using `su'.
     Default is to search the non-network directories as the current
     user.  You can also use the environment variable `LOCALUSER' to
     set this user.

`--netuser=USER'
     The user to search network directories as, using `su'.  Default
     `user' is `daemon'.  You can also use the environment variable
     `NETUSER' to set this user.

`--old-format'
     Generate a `locate' database in the old format, for compatibility
     with versions of `locate' other than GNU `locate'.	 Using this
     option means that `locate' will not be able to properly handle
     non-ASCII characters in file names (that is, file names containing
     characters which have the eighth bit set, such as many of the
     characters from the ISO-8859-1 character set).  Versions of
     `locate' prior to 4.2.31 fail to correctly handle long filenames
     in old-format databases.

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command line usage and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of `updatedb' and exit.

File: find.info,  Node: Invoking xargs,	 Next: Regular Expressions,  Prev: Invoking updatedb,  Up: Reference

6.4 Invoking `xargs'
====================

     xargs [OPTION...] [COMMAND [INITIAL-ARGUMENTS]]

   `xargs' exits with the following status:

0
     if it succeeds

123
     if any invocation of the command exited with status 1-125

124
     if the command exited with status 255

125
     if the command is killed by a signal

126
     if the command cannot be run

127
     if the command is not found

1
     if some other error occurred.

   Exit codes greater than 128 are used by the shell to indicate that a
program died due to a fatal signal.

`--arg-file=INPUTFILE'
`-a oINPUTFILE'
     Read names from the file INPUTFILE instead of standard input.  If
     you use this option, the standard input stream remains unchanged
     when commands are run. Otherwise, stdin is redirected from
     `/dev/null'.

`--null'
`-0'
     Input file names are terminated by a null character instead of by
     whitespace, and any quotes and backslash characters are not
     considered special (every character is taken literally).  Disables
     the end of file string, which is treated like any other argument.

`--delimiter DELIM'
`-d DELIM'
     Input file names are terminated by the specified character DELIM
     instead of by whitespace, and any quotes and backslash characters
     are not considered special (every character is taken literally).
     Disables the end of file string, which is treated like any other
     argument.

     The specified delimiter may be a single character, a C-style
     character escape such as `
', or an octal or hexadecimal escape
     code.  Octal and hexadecimal escape codes are understood as for the
     `printf' command.	Multibyte characters are not supported.

`-E EOF-STR'
`--eof[=EOF-STR]'
`-e[EOF-STR]'
     Set the end of file string to EOF-STR.  If the end of file string
     occurs as a line of input, the rest of the input is ignored.  If
     EOF-STR is omitted (`-e') or blank (either `-e' or `-E'), there is
     no end of file string.  The `-e' form of this option is deprecated
     in favour of the POSIX-compliant `-E' option, which you should use
     instead.  As of GNU xargs version 4.2.9, the default behaviour of
     xargs is not to have a logical end-of-file marker.	 The POSIX
     standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition) allows this.

`--help'
     Print a summary of the options to `xargs' and exit.

`-I REPLACE-STR'
`--replace[=REPLACE-STR]'
`-i[REPLACE-STR]'
     Replace occurrences of REPLACE-STR in the initial arguments with
     names read from standard input.  Also, unquoted blanks do not
     terminate arguments; instead, the input is split at newlines only.
     If REPLACE-STR is omitted (omitting it is allowed only for `-i'),
     it defaults to `{}' (like for `find -exec').  Implies `-x' and `-l
     1'.  The `-i' option is deprecated in favour of the `-I' option.

`-L MAX-LINES'
`--max-lines[=MAX-LINES]'
`-l[MAX-LINES]'
     Use at most MAX-LINES non-blank input lines per command line.  For
     `-l', MAX-LINES defaults to 1 if omitted.	For `-L', the argument
     is mandatory.  Trailing blanks cause an input line to be logically
     continued on the next input line, for the purpose of counting the
     lines.  Implies `-x'.  The `-l' form of this option is deprecated
     in favour of the POSIX-compliant `-L' option.

`--max-args=MAX-ARGS'
`-n MAX-ARGS'
     Use at most MAX-ARGS arguments per command line.  Fewer than
     MAX-ARGS arguments will be used if the size (see the `-s' option)
     is exceeded, unless the `-x' option is given, in which case
     `xargs' will exit.

`--interactive'
`-p'
     Prompt the user about whether to run each command line and read a
     line from the terminal.  Only run the command line if the response
     starts with `y' or `Y'.  Implies `-t'.

`--no-run-if-empty'
`-r'
     If the standard input is completely empty, do not run the command.
     By default, the command is run once even if there is no input.

`--max-chars=MAX-CHARS'
`-s MAX-CHARS'
     Use at most MAX-CHARS characters per command line, including the
     command, initial arguments and any terminating nulls at the ends of
     the argument strings.

`--show-limits'
     Display the limits on the command-line length which are imposed by
     the operating system, `xargs'' choice of buffer size and the `-s'
     option.  Pipe the input from `/dev/null' (and perhaps specify
     `--no-run-if-empty') if you don't want `xargs' to do anything.

`--verbose'
`-t'
     Print the command line on the standard error output before
     executing it.

`--version'
     Print the version number of `xargs' and exit.

`--exit'
`-x'
     Exit if the size (see the `-s' option) is exceeded.

`--max-procs=MAX-PROCS'
`-P MAX-PROCS'
     Run simultaneously up to MAX-PROCS processes at once; the default
     is 1.  If MAX-PROCS is 0, `xargs' will run as many processes as
     possible simultaneously.

File: find.info,  Node: Regular Expressions,  Next: Environment Variables,  Prev: Invoking xargs,  Up: Reference

6.5 Regular Expressions
=======================

The `-regex' and `-iregex' tests of `find' allow matching by regular
expression, as does the `--regex' option of `locate'.  There are many
different types of Regular Expression, but the type used by `find' and
`locate' is the same as is used in GNU Emacs.  Both programs provide an
option which allows you to select an alternative regular expression
syntax; for `find' this is the `-regextype' option, and for `locate'
this is the `--regextype' option.

   These options take a single argument, which indicates the specific
regular expression syntax and behaviour that should be used.  This
should be one of the following:

* Menu:

* findutils-default regular expression syntax::
* awk regular expression syntax::
* egrep regular expression syntax::
* emacs regular expression syntax::
* gnu-awk regular expression syntax::
* grep regular expression syntax::
* posix-awk regular expression syntax::
* posix-basic regular expression syntax::
* posix-egrep regular expression syntax::
* posix-extended regular expression syntax::

File: find.info,  Node: findutils-default regular expression syntax,  Next: awk regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.1 `findutils-default' regular expression syntax
---------------------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
ignored.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are not supported, so for example you would need to use `[0-9]'
instead of `[[:digit:]]'.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with backslashes followed by parentheses `(',
`)'.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a back-reference and
matches the same thing as the previous grouped expression indicated by
that number.  For example `2' matches the second group expression.
The order of group expressions is determined by the position of their
opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The character `^' only represents the beginning of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The character `$' only represents the end of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the end of a regular expression

  2. Before a close-group, signified by `)'

  3. Before the alternation operator `|'


   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: awk regular expression syntax,	Next: egrep regular expression syntax,	Prev: findutils-default regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.2 `awk' regular expression syntax
-------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except the null
character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
invalid.  Within square brackets, `' can be used to quote the
following character.  Character classes are not supported, so for
example you would need to use `[0-9]' instead of `[[:digit:]]'.

   GNU extensions are not supported and so `w', `W', `<', `>',
`', `B', ``', and `'' match `w', `W', `<', `>', `b', `B', ``', and
`'' respectively.

   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 An unmatched `)'
matches just itself.  A backslash followed by a digit matches that
digit.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: egrep regular expression syntax,  Next: emacs regular expression syntax,  Prev: awk regular expression syntax,	Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.3 `egrep' regular expression syntax
---------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except newline.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
ignored.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are supported; for example `[[:digit:]]' will match a single
decimal digit.	Non-matching lists `[^...]' do not ever match newline.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 A backslash followed
by a digit acts as a back-reference and matches the same thing as the
previous grouped expression indicated by that number.  For example `2'
matches the second group expression.  The order of group expressions is
determined by the position of their opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   The characters `*', `+' and `?' are special anywhere in a regular
expression.

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: emacs regular expression syntax,  Next: gnu-awk regular expression syntax,  Prev: egrep regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.4 `emacs' regular expression syntax
---------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except newline.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
ignored.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are not supported, so for example you would need to use `[0-9]'
instead of `[[:digit:]]'.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with backslashes followed by parentheses `(',
`)'.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a back-reference and
matches the same thing as the previous grouped expression indicated by
that number.  For example `2' matches the second group expression.
The order of group expressions is determined by the position of their
opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The character `^' only represents the beginning of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The character `$' only represents the end of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the end of a regular expression

  2. Before a close-group, signified by `)'

  3. Before the alternation operator `|'


   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: gnu-awk regular expression syntax,  Next: grep regular expression syntax,  Prev: emacs regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.5 `gnu-awk' regular expression syntax
-----------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
invalid.  Within square brackets, `' can be used to quote the
following character.  Character classes are supported; for example
`[[:digit:]]' will match a single decimal digit.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 An unmatched `)'
matches just itself.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a
back-reference and matches the same thing as the previous grouped
expression indicated by that number.  For example `2' matches the
second group expression.  The order of group expressions is determined
by the position of their opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: grep regular expression syntax,	 Next: posix-awk regular expression syntax,  Prev: gnu-awk regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.6 `grep' regular expression syntax
--------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except newline.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+ and ?'
     match themselves.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
ignored.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are supported; for example `[[:digit:]]' will match a single
decimal digit.	Non-matching lists `[^...]' do not ever match newline.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with backslashes followed by parentheses `(',
`)'.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a back-reference and
matches the same thing as the previous grouped expression indicated by
that number.  For example `2' matches the second group expression.
The order of group expressions is determined by the position of their
opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The character `^' only represents the beginning of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After a newline

  4. After the alternation operator `|'


   The character `$' only represents the end of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the end of a regular expression

  2. Before a close-group, signified by `)'

  3. Before a newline

  4. Before the alternation operator `|'


   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After a newline

  4. After the alternation operator `|'


   Intervals are specified by `{' and `}'.  Invalid intervals such as
`a{1z' are not accepted.

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: posix-awk regular expression syntax,  Next: posix-basic regular expression syntax,  Prev: grep regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.7 `posix-awk' regular expression syntax
-------------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except the null
character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
invalid.  Within square brackets, `' can be used to quote the
following character.  Character classes are supported; for example
`[[:digit:]]' will match a single decimal digit.

   GNU extensions are not supported and so `w', `W', `<', `>',
`', `B', ``', and `'' match `w', `W', `<', `>', `b', `B', ``', and
`'' respectively.

   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 An unmatched `)'
matches just itself.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a
back-reference and matches the same thing as the previous grouped
expression indicated by that number.  For example `2' matches the
second group expression.  The order of group expressions is determined
by the position of their opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except the following places, where they are not allowed:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   Intervals are specified by `{' and `}'.  Invalid intervals such as
`a{1z' are not accepted.

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: posix-basic regular expression syntax,	Next: posix-egrep regular expression syntax,  Prev: posix-awk regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.8 `posix-basic' regular expression syntax
---------------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except the null
character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+ and ?'
     match themselves.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
invalid.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are supported; for example `[[:digit:]]' will match a single
decimal digit.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with backslashes followed by parentheses `(',
`)'.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a back-reference and
matches the same thing as the previous grouped expression indicated by
that number.  For example `2' matches the second group expression.
The order of group expressions is determined by the position of their
opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The character `^' only represents the beginning of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   The character `$' only represents the end of a string when it
appears:
  1. At the end of a regular expression

  2. Before a close-group, signified by `)'

  3. Before the alternation operator `|'


   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   Intervals are specified by `{' and `}'.  Invalid intervals such as
`a{1z' are not accepted.

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: posix-egrep regular expression syntax,	Next: posix-extended regular expression syntax,	 Prev: posix-basic regular expression syntax,  Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.9 `posix-egrep' regular expression syntax
---------------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except newline.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
ignored.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are supported; for example `[[:digit:]]' will match a single
decimal digit.	Non-matching lists `[^...]' do not ever match newline.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 A backslash followed
by a digit acts as a back-reference and matches the same thing as the
previous grouped expression indicated by that number.  For example `2'
matches the second group expression.  The order of group expressions is
determined by the position of their opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   The characters `*', `+' and `?' are special anywhere in a regular
expression.

   Intervals are specified by `{' and `}'.  Invalid intervals are
treated as literals, for example `a{1' is treated as `a{1'

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: posix-extended regular expression syntax,  Prev: posix-egrep regular expression syntax,	 Up: Regular Expressions

6.5.10 `posix-extended' regular expression syntax
-------------------------------------------------

The character `.' matches any single character except the null
character.

`+'
     indicates that the regular expression should match one or more
     occurrences of the previous atom or regexp.

`?'
     indicates that the regular expression should match zero or one
     occurrence of the previous atom or regexp.

`+'
     matches a `+'

`?'
     matches a `?'.

   Bracket expressions are used to match ranges of characters.	Bracket
expressions where the range is backward, for example `[z-a]', are
invalid.  Within square brackets, `' is taken literally.  Character
classes are supported; for example `[[:digit:]]' will match a single
decimal digit.

   GNU extensions are supported:
  1. `w' matches a character within a word

  2. `W' matches a character which is not within a word

  3. `<' matches the beginning of a word

  4. `>' matches the end of a word

  5. `' matches a word boundary

  6. `B' matches characters which are not a word boundary

  7. ``' matches the beginning of the whole input

  8. `'' matches the end of the whole input


   Grouping is performed with parentheses `()'.	 An unmatched `)'
matches just itself.  A backslash followed by a digit acts as a
back-reference and matches the same thing as the previous grouped
expression indicated by that number.  For example `2' matches the
second group expression.  The order of group expressions is determined
by the position of their opening parenthesis `('.

   The alternation operator is `|'.

   The characters `^' and `$' always represent the beginning and end of
a string respectively, except within square brackets.  Within brackets,
`^' can be used to invert the membership of the character class being
specified.

   `*', `+' and `?' are special at any point in a regular expression
except the following places, where they are not allowed:
  1. At the beginning of a regular expression

  2. After an open-group, signified by `('

  3. After the alternation operator `|'


   Intervals are specified by `{' and `}'.  Invalid intervals such as
`a{1z' are not accepted.

   The longest possible match is returned; this applies to the regular
expression as a whole and (subject to this constraint) to
subexpressions within groups.

File: find.info,  Node: Environment Variables,	Prev: Regular Expressions,  Up: Reference

6.6 Environment Variables
=========================

LANG
     Provides a default value for the internationalisation variables
     that are unset or null.

LC_ALL
     If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the
     other internationalisation variables.

LC_COLLATE
     The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern
     matching to be used for the `-name' option.  GNU find uses the
     GNU version of the `fnmatch' library function.

     POSIX also specifies that the `LC_COLLATE' environment variable
     affects the interpretation of the user's response to the query
     issued by `-ok', but this is not the case for GNU find.

LC_CTYPE
     This variable affects the treatment of character classes used with
     the `-name' test, if the system's `fnmatch' library function
     supports this.   It has no effect on the behaviour of the `-ok'
     expression.

LC_MESSAGES
     Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

NLSPATH
     Determines the location of the internationalisation message
     catalogues.

PATH
     Affects the directories which are searched to find the executables
     invoked by `-exec', `-execdir' `-ok' and `-okdir'.	 If the PATH
     environment variable includes the current directory (by explicitly
     including `.' or by having an empty element), and the find command
     line includes `-execdir' or `-okdir', `find' will refuse to run.
     *Note Security Considerations::, for a more detailed discussion of
     security matters.

POSIXLY_CORRECT
     Determines the block size used by `-ls' and `-fls'.  If
     POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise
     they are units of 1024 bytes.

TZ
     Affects the time zone used for some of the time-related format
     directives of `-printf' and `-fprintf'.

File: find.info,  Node: Common Tasks,  Next: Worked Examples,  Prev: Reference,	 Up: Top

7 Common Tasks
**************

The sections that follow contain some extended examples that both give
a good idea of the power of these programs, and show you how to solve
common real-world problems.

* Menu:

* Viewing And Editing::
* Archiving::
* Cleaning Up::
* Strange File Names::
* Fixing Permissions::
* Classifying Files::

File: find.info,  Node: Viewing And Editing,  Next: Archiving,	Up: Common Tasks

7.1 Viewing And Editing
=======================

To view a list of files that meet certain criteria, simply run your
file viewing program with the file names as arguments.	Shells
substitute a command enclosed in backquotes with its output, so the
whole command looks like this:

     less `find /usr/include -name '*.h' | xargs grep -l mode_t`

You can edit those files by giving an editor name instead of a file
viewing program:

     emacs `find /usr/include -name '*.h' | xargs grep -l mode_t`

   Because there is a limit to the length of any individual command
line, there is a limit to the number of files that can be handled in
this way.  We can get around this difficulty by using xargs like this:

     find /usr/include -name '*.h' | xargs grep -l mode_t > todo
     xargs --arg-file=todo emacs

   Here, `xargs' will run `emacs' as many times as necessary to visit
all of the files listed in the file `todo'.

File: find.info,  Node: Archiving,  Next: Cleaning Up,	Prev: Viewing And Editing,  Up: Common Tasks

7.2 Archiving
=============

You can pass a list of files produced by `find' to a file archiving
program.  GNU `tar' and `cpio' can both read lists of file names from
the standard input--either delimited by nulls (the safe way) or by
blanks (the lazy, risky default way).  To use null-delimited names,
give them the `--null' option.	You can store a file archive in a file,
write it on a tape, or send it over a network to extract on another
machine.

   One common use of `find' to archive files is to send a list of the
files in a directory tree to `cpio'.  Use `-depth' so if a directory
does not have write permission for its owner, its contents can still be
restored from the archive since the directory's permissions are
restored after its contents.  Here is an example of doing this using
`cpio'; you could use a more complex `find' expression to archive only
certain files.

     find . -depth -print0 |
       cpio --create --null --format=crc --file=/dev/nrst0

   You could restore that archive using this command:

     cpio --extract --null --make-dir --unconditional 
       --preserve --file=/dev/nrst0

   Here are the commands to do the same things using `tar':

     find . -depth -print0 |
       tar --create --null --files-from=- --file=/dev/nrst0

     tar --extract --null --preserve-perm --same-owner 
       --file=/dev/nrst0

   Here is an example of copying a directory from one machine to
another:

     find . -depth -print0 | cpio -0o -Hnewc |
       rsh OTHER-MACHINE "cd `pwd` && cpio -i0dum"

File: find.info,  Node: Cleaning Up,  Next: Strange File Names,	 Prev: Archiving,  Up: Common Tasks

7.3 Cleaning Up
===============

This section gives examples of removing unwanted files in various
situations.  Here is a command to remove the CVS backup files created
when an update requires a merge:

     find . -name '.#*' -print0 | xargs -0r rm -f

   The command above works, but the following is safer:

     find . -name '.#*' -depth -delete

   You can run this command to clean out your clutter in `/tmp'.  You
might place it in the file your shell runs when you log out
(`.bash_logout', `.logout', or `.zlogout', depending on which shell you
use).

     find /tmp -depth -user "$LOGNAME" -type f -delete

   If your `find' command removes directories, you may find that you
get a spurious error message when `find' tries to recurse into a
directory that has now been removed.  Using the `-depth' option will
normally resolve this problem.

   To remove old Emacs backup and auto-save files, you can use a command
like the following.  It is especially important in this case to use
null-terminated file names because Emacs packages like the VM mailer
often create temporary file names with spaces in them, like `#reply to
David J. MacKenzie<1>#'.

     find ~ ( -name '*~' -o -name '#*#' ) -print0 |
       xargs --no-run-if-empty --null rm -vf

   Removing old files from `/tmp' is commonly done from `cron':

     find /tmp /var/tmp -not -type d -mtime +3 -delete
     find /tmp /var/tmp -depth -mindepth 1 -type d -empty -delete

   The second `find' command above uses `-depth' so it cleans out empty
directories depth-first, hoping that the parents become empty and can
be removed too.	 It uses `-mindepth' to avoid removing `/tmp' itself if
it becomes totally empty.

File: find.info,  Node: Strange File Names,  Next: Fixing Permissions,	Prev: Cleaning Up,  Up: Common Tasks

7.4 Strange File Names
======================

`find' can help you remove or rename a file with strange characters in
its name.  People are sometimes stymied by files whose names contain
characters such as spaces, tabs, control characters, or characters with
the high bit set.  The simplest way to remove such files is:

     rm -i SOME*PATTERN*THAT*MATCHES*THE*PROBLEM*FILE

   `rm' asks you whether to remove each file matching the given
pattern.  If you are using an old shell, this approach might not work
if the file name contains a character with the high bit set; the shell
may strip it off.  A more reliable way is:

     find . -maxdepth 1 TESTS -okdir rm '{}' ;

where TESTS uniquely identify the file.	 The `-maxdepth 1' option
prevents `find' from wasting time searching for the file in any
subdirectories; if there are no subdirectories, you may omit it.  A
good way to uniquely identify the problem file is to figure out its
inode number; use

     ls -i

   Suppose you have a file whose name contains control characters, and
you have found that its inode number is 12345.	This command prompts
you for whether to remove it:

     find . -maxdepth 1 -inum 12345 -okdir rm -f '{}' ;

   If you don't want to be asked, perhaps because the file name may
contain a strange character sequence that will mess up your screen when
printed, then use `-execdir' instead of `-okdir'.

   If you want to rename the file instead, you can use `mv' instead of
`rm':

     find . -maxdepth 1 -inum 12345 -okdir mv '{}' NEW-FILE-NAME ;

File: find.info,  Node: Fixing Permissions,  Next: Classifying Files,  Prev: Strange File Names,  Up: Common Tasks

7.5 Fixing Permissions
======================

Suppose you want to make sure that everyone can write to the
directories in a certain directory tree.  Here is a way to find
directories lacking either user or group write permission (or both),
and fix their permissions:

     find . -type d -not -perm -ug=w | xargs chmod ug+w

You could also reverse the operations, if you want to make sure that
directories do _not_ have world write permission.

File: find.info,  Node: Classifying Files,  Prev: Fixing Permissions,  Up: Common Tasks

7.6 Classifying Files
=====================

If you want to classify a set of files into several groups based on
different criteria, you can use the comma operator to perform multiple
independent tests on the files.	 Here is an example:

     find / -type d ( -perm -o=w -fprint allwrite , 
       -perm -o=x -fprint allexec )

     echo "Directories that can be written to by everyone:"
     cat allwrite
     echo ""
     echo "Directories with search permissions for everyone:"
     cat allexec

   `find' has only to make one scan through the directory tree (which
is one of the most time consuming parts of its work).

File: find.info,  Node: Worked Examples,  Next: Security Considerations,  Prev: Common Tasks,  Up: Top

8 Worked Examples
*****************

The tools in the findutils package, and in particular `find', have a
large number of options.  This means that quite often, there is more
than one way to do things.  Some of the options and facilities only
exist for compatibility with other tools, and findutils provides
improved ways of doing things.

   This chapter describes a number of useful tasks that are commonly
performed, and compares the different ways of achieving them.

* Menu:

* Deleting Files::
* Updating A Timestamp File::

File: find.info,  Node: Deleting Files,	 Next: Updating A Timestamp File,  Up: Worked Examples

8.1 Deleting Files
==================

One of the most common tasks that `find' is used for is locating files
that can be deleted.  This might include:

   * Files last modified more than 3 years ago which haven't been
     accessed for at least 2 years

   * Files belonging to a certain user

   * Temporary files which are no longer required

   This example concentrates on the actual deletion task rather than on
sophisticated ways of locating the files that need to be deleted.
We'll assume that the files we want to delete are old files underneath
`/var/tmp/stuff'.

8.1.1 The Traditional Way
-------------------------

The traditional way to delete files in `var/tmp/stuff' that have not
been modified in over 90 days would have been:

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -exec /bin/rm {} ;

   The above command uses `-exec' to run the `/bin/rm' command to
remove each file.  This approach works and in fact would have worked in
Version 7 Unix in 1979.	 However, there are a number of problems with
this approach.

   The most obvious problem with the approach above is that it causes
`find' to fork every time it finds a file that needs to delete, and the
child process then has to use the `exec' system call to launch
`/bin/rm'.   All this is quite inefficient.  If we are going to use
`/bin/rm' to do this job, it is better to make it delete more than one
file at a time.

   The most obvious way of doing this is to use the shell's command
expansion feature:

     /bin/rm `find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -print`
   or you could use the more modern form
     /bin/rm $(find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -print)

   The commands above are much more efficient than the first attempt.
However, there is a problem with them.	The shell has a maximum command
length which is imposed by the operating system (the actual limit
varies between systems).  This means that while the command expansion
technique will usually work, it will suddenly fail when there are lots
of files to delete.  Since the task is to delete unwanted files, this
is precisely the time we don't want things to go wrong.

8.1.2 Making Use of xargs
-------------------------

So, is there a way to be more efficient in the use of `fork()' and
`exec()' without running up against this limit?	 Yes, we can be almost
optimally efficient by making use of the `xargs' command.  The `xargs'
command reads arguments from its standard input and builds them into
command lines.	We can use it like this:

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -print | xargs /bin/rm

   For example if the files found by `find' are `/var/tmp/stuff/A',
`/var/tmp/stuff/B' and `/var/tmp/stuff/C' then `xargs' might issue the
commands

     /bin/rm /var/tmp/stuff/A /var/tmp/stuff/B
     /bin/rm /var/tmp/stuff/C

   The above assumes that `xargs' has a very small maximum command line
length.	 The real limit is much larger but the idea is that `xargs'
will run `/bin/rm' as many times as necessary to get the job done,
given the limits on command line length.

   This usage of `xargs' is pretty efficient, and the `xargs' command
is widely implemented (all modern versions of Unix offer it).  So far
then, the news is all good.  However, there is bad news too.

8.1.3 Unusual characters in filenames
-------------------------------------

Unix-like systems allow any characters to appear in file names with the
exception of the ASCII NUL character and the backslash.	 Backslashes
can occur in path names (as the directory separator) but not in the
names of actual directory entries.  This means that the list of files
that `xargs' reads could in fact contain white space characters --
spaces, tabs and newline characters.  Since by default, `xargs' assumes
that the list of files it is reading uses white space as an argument
separator, it cannot correctly handle the case where a filename
actually includes white space.	This makes the default behaviour of
`xargs' almost useless for handling arbitrary data.

   To solve this problem, GNU findutils introduced the `-print0' action
for `find'.  This uses the ASCII NUL character to separate the entries
in the file list that it produces.  This is the ideal choice of
separator since it is the only character that cannot appear within a
path name.  The `-0' option to `xargs' makes it assume that arguments
are separated with ASCII NUL instead of white space.  It also turns off
another misfeature in the default behaviour of `xargs', which is that
it pays attention to quote characters in its input.  Some versions of
`xargs' also terminate when they see a lone `_' in the input, but GNU
`find' no longer does that (since it has become an optional behaviour
in the Unix standard).

   So, putting `find -print0' together with `xargs -0' we get this
command:

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm

   The result is an efficient way of proceeding that correctly handles
all the possible characters that could appear in the list of files to
delete.	 This is good news.  However, there is, as I'm sure you're
expecting, also more bad news.	The problem is that this is not a
portable construct; although other versions of Unix (notable
BSD-derived ones) support `-print0', it's not universal.  So, is there
a more universal mechanism?

8.1.4 Going back to -exec
-------------------------

There is indeed a more universal mechanism, which is a slight
modification to the `-exec' action.  The normal `-exec' action assumes
that the command to run is terminated with a semicolon (the semicolon
normally has to be quoted in order to protect it from interpretation as
the shell command separator).  The SVR4 edition of Unix introduced a
slight variation, which involves terminating the command with `+'
instead:

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -exec /bin/rm {} +

   The above use of `-exec' causes `find' to build up a long command
line and then issue it.	 This can be less efficient than some uses of
`xargs'; for example `xargs' allows new command lines to be built up
while the previous command is still executing, and allows you to
specify a number of commands to run in parallel.  However, the `find
... -exec ... +' construct has the advantage of wide portability.  GNU
findutils did not support `-exec ... +' until version 4.2.12; one of
the reasons for this is that it already had the `-print0' action in any
case.

8.1.5 A more secure version of -exec
------------------------------------

The command above seems to be efficient and portable.  However, within
it lurks a security problem.  The problem is shared with all the
commands we've tried in this worked example so far, too.  The security
problem is a race condition; that is, if it is possible for somebody to
manipulate the filesystem that you are searching while you are
searching it, it is possible for them to persuade your `find' command
to cause the deletion of a file that you can delete but they normally
cannot.

   The problem occurs because the `-exec' action is defined by the
POSIX standard to invoke its command with the same working directory as
`find' had when it was started.	 This means that the arguments which
replace the {} include a relative path from `find''s starting point
down the file that needs to be deleted.	 For example,

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -exec /bin/rm {} +

   might actually issue the command:

     /bin/rm /var/tmp/stuff/A /var/tmp/stuff/B /var/tmp/stuff/passwd

   Notice the file `/var/tmp/stuff/passwd'.  Likewise, the command:

     cd /var/tmp && find stuff -mtime +90 -exec /bin/rm {} +

   might actually issue the command:

     /bin/rm stuff/A stuff/B stuff/passwd

   If an attacker can rename `stuff' to something else (making use of
their write permissions in `/var/tmp') they can replace it with a
symbolic link to `/etc'.  That means that the `/bin/rm' command will be
invoked on `/etc/passwd'.  If you are running your `find' command as
root, the attacker has just managed to delete a vital file.  All they
needed to do to achieve this was replace a subdirectory with a symbolic
link at the vital moment.

   There is however, a simple solution to the problem.	This is an
action which works a lot like `-exec' but doesn't need to traverse a
chain of directories to reach the file that it needs to work on.  This
is the `-execdir' action, which was introduced by the BSD family of
operating systems.   The command,

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -execdir /bin/rm {} +

   might delete a set of files by performing these actions:

  1. Change directory to /var/tmp/stuff/foo

  2. Invoke `/bin/rm ./file1 ./file2 ./file3'

  3. Change directory to /var/tmp/stuff/bar

  4. Invoke `/bin/rm ./file99 ./file100 ./file101'

   This is a much more secure method.  We are no longer exposed to a
race condition.	 For many typical uses of `find', this is the best
strategy.   It's reasonably efficient, but the length of the command
line is limited not just by the operating system limits, but also by
how many files we actually need to delete from each directory.

   Is it possible to do any better?   In the case of general file
processing, no.	 However, in the specific case of deleting files it is
indeed possible to do better.

8.1.6 Using the -delete action
------------------------------

The most efficient and secure method of solving this problem is to use
the `-delete' action:

     find /var/tmp/stuff -mtime +90 -delete

   This alternative is more efficient than any of the `-exec' or
`-execdir' actions, since it entirely avoids the overhead of forking a
new process and using `exec' to run `/bin/rm'.	It is also normally
more efficient than `xargs' for the same reason.   The file deletion is
performed from the directory containing the entry to be deleted, so the
`-delete' action has the same security advantages as the `-execdir'
action has.

   The `-delete' action was introduced by the BSD family of operating
systems.

8.1.7 Improving things still further
------------------------------------

Is it possible to improve things still further?	 Not without either
modifying the system library to the operating system or having more
specific knowledge of the layout of the filesystem and disk I/O
subsystem, or both.

   The `find' command traverses the filesystem, reading directories.
It then issues a separate system call for each file to be deleted.  If
we could modify the operating system, there are potential gains that
could be made:

   * We could have a system call to which we pass more than one filename
     for deletion

   * Alternatively, we could pass in a list of inode numbers (on
     GNU/Linux systems, `readdir()' also returns the inode number of
     each directory entry) to be deleted.

   The above possibilities sound interesting, but from the kernel's
point of view it is difficult to enforce standard Unix access controls
for such processing by inode number.  Such a facility would probably
need to be restricted to the superuser.

   Another way of improving performance would be to increase the
parallelism of the process.  For example if the directory hierarchy we
are searching is actually spread across a number of disks, we might
somehow be able to arrange for `find' to process each disk in parallel.
In practice GNU `find' doesn't have such an intimate understanding of
the system's filesystem layout and disk I/O subsystem.

   However, since the system administrator can have such an
understanding they can take advantage of it like so:

     find /var/tmp/stuff1 -mtime +90 -delete &
     find /var/tmp/stuff2 -mtime +90 -delete &
     find /var/tmp/stuff3 -mtime +90 -delete &
     find /var/tmp/stuff4 -mtime +90 -delete &
     wait

   In the example above, four separate instances of `find' are used to
search four subdirectories in parallel.	 The `wait' command simply
waits for all of these to complete.  Whether this approach is more or
less efficient than a single instance of `find' depends on a number of
things:

   * Are the directories being searched in parallel actually on separate
     disks?  If not, this parallel search might just result in a lot of
     disk head movement and so the speed might even be slower.

   * Other activity - are other programs also doing things on those
     disks?

8.1.8 Conclusion
----------------

The fastest and most secure way to delete files with the help of `find'
is to use `-delete'.  Using `xargs -0 -P N' can also make effective use
of the disk, but it is not as secure.

   In the case where we're doing things other than deleting files, the
most secure alternative is `-execdir ... +', but this is not as
portable as the insecure action `-exec ... +'.

   The `-delete' action is not completely portable, but the only other
possibility which is as secure (`-execdir') is no more portable.  The
most efficient portable alternative is `-exec ...+', but this is
insecure and isn't supported by versions of GNU findutils prior to
4.2.12.

File: find.info,  Node: Updating A Timestamp File,  Prev: Deleting Files,  Up: Worked Examples

8.2 Updating A Timestamp File
=============================

Suppose we have a directory full of files which is maintained with a
set of automated tools; perhaps one set of tools updates them and
another set of tools uses the result.  In this situation, it might be
useful for the second set of tools to know if the files have recently
been changed.  It might be useful, for example, to have a 'timestamp'
file which gives the timestamp on the newest file in the collection.

   We can use `find' to achieve this, but there are several different
ways to do it.

8.2.1 Updating the Timestamp The Wrong Way
------------------------------------------

The obvious but wrong answer is just to use `-newer':-

     find subdir -newer timestamp -exec touch -r {} timestamp ;

   This does the right sort of thing but has a bug.  Suppose that two
files in the subdirectory have been updated, and that these are called
`file1' and `file2'.  The command above will update `timestamp' with
the modification time of `file1' or that of `file2', but we don't know
which one.  Since the timestamps on `file1' and `file2' will in general
be different, this could well be the wrong value.

   One solution to this problem is to modify `find' to recheck the
modification time of `timestamp' every time a file is to be compared
against it, but that will reduce the performance of `find'.

8.2.2 Using the test utility to compare timestamps
--------------------------------------------------

The `test' command can be used to compare timestamps:

     find subdir -exec test {} -nt timestamp ; -exec touch -r {} timestamp ;

   This will ensure that any changes made to the modification time of
`timestamp' that take place during the execution of `find' are taken
into account.  This resolves our earlier problem, but unfortunately
this runs much more slowly.

8.2.3 A combined approach
-------------------------

We can of course still use `-newer' to cut down on the number of calls
to `test':

     find subdir -newer timestamp -a 
	  -exec test {} -nt timestamp ; -a 
	  -exec touch -r {} timestamp ;

   Here, the `-newer' test excludes all the files which are definitely
older than the timestamp, but all the files which are newer than the
old value of the timestamp are compared against the current updated
timestamp.

   This is indeed faster in general, but the speed difference will
depend on how many updated files there are.

8.2.4 Using -printf and sort to compare timestamps
--------------------------------------------------

It is possible to use the `-printf' action to abandon the use of `test'
entirely:

     newest=$(find subdir -newer timestamp -printf "%A%p
" |
		sort -n |
		tail -1 |
		cut -d: -f2- )
     touch -r "${newest:-timestamp}" timestamp

   The command above works by generating a list of the timestamps and
names of all the files which are newer than the timestamp.  The `sort',
`tail' and `cut' commands simply pull out the name of the file with the
largest timestamp value (that is, the latest file).  The `touch'
command is then used to update the timestamp,

   The `"${newest:-timestamp}"' expression simply expands to the value
of `$newest' if that variable is set, but to `timestamp' otherwise.
This ensures that an argument is always given to the `-r' option of the
`touch' command.

   This approach seems quite efficient, but unfortunately it has a bug.
Many operating systems now keep file modification time information at a
granularity which is finer than one second.  Unfortunately the `%A@'
format for `-printf' only prints a whole-number value currently; that
is, these values are at a one-second granularity.  This means that in
our example above, `$newest' will be the name of a file which is no
more than one second older than the newest file, but may indeed be
older.

   It would be possible to solve this problem with some kind of loop:

     while true; do
	     newest=$(find subdir -newer timestamp -printf "%A@:%p
" |
		sort -n |
		tail -1 |
		cut -d: -f2- )
	     if test -z "$newest" ; then
		     break
	     else
		     touch -r "$newest" timestamp
	     fi
     done

   A better fix for this problem would be to allow the `%A@' format to
produce a result having a fractional part, too.	 While this is planned
for GNU `find', it hasn't been done yet.

8.2.5 Coping with sub-second timestamp resolution
-------------------------------------------------

Another tool which often works with timestamps is `make'.  We can use
`find' to generate a `Makefile' file on the fly and then use `make' to
update the timestamps:

     makefile=$(mktemp)
     find subdir 
	( ! -xtype l ) 
	-newer timestamp 
	-printf "timestamp:: %p
	touch -r %p timestamp

" > "$makefile"
     make -f "$makefile"
     rm	  -f "$makefile"

   Unfortunately although the solution above is quite elegant, it fails
to cope with white space within file names, and adjusting it to do so
would require a rather complex shell script.

8.2.6 Coping with odd filenames too
-----------------------------------

We can fix both of these problems (looping and problems with white
space), and do things more efficiently too.  The following command
works with newlines and doesn't need to sort the list of filenames.

     find subdir -newer timestamp -printf "%A@:%p\0" |
	perl -0 newest.pl |
	xargs --no-run-if-empty --null -i 
	   find {} -maxdepth 0 -newer timestamp -exec touch -r {} timestamp ;

   The first `find' command generates a list of files which are newer
than the original timestamp file, and prints a list of them with their
timestamps.  The `newest.pl' script simply filters out all the
filenames which have timestamps which are older than whatever the
newest file is:-


     #! /usr/bin/perl -0
     my @newest = ();
     my $latest_stamp = undef;
     while (<>) {
	 my ($stamp, $name) = split(/:/);
	 if (!defined($latest_stamp) || ($tstamp > $latest_stamp)) {
	     $latest_stamp = $stamp;
	     @newest = ();
	 }
	 if ($tstamp >= $latest_stamp) {
	     push @newest, $name;
	 }
     }
     print join("\0", @newest);

   This prints a list of zero or more files, all of which are newer than
the original timestamp file, and which have the same timestamp as each
other, to the nearest second.  The second `find' command takes each
resulting file one at a time, and if that is newer than the timestamp
file, the timestamp is updated.

File: find.info,  Node: Security Considerations,  Next: Error Messages,	 Prev: Worked Examples,	 Up: Top

9 Security Considerations
*************************

Security considerations are important if you are using `find' or
`xargs' to search for or process files that don't belong to you or
which other people have control.  Security considerations relating to
`locate' may also apply if you have files which you do not want others
to see.

   The most severe forms of security problems affecting `find' and
related programs are when third parties bring about a situation
allowing them to do something they would normally not be able to
accomplish.  This is called _privilege elevation_.  This might include
deleting files they would not normally be able to delete.  It is common
for the operating system to periodically invoke `find' for
self-maintenance purposes.  These invocations of `find' are
particularly problematic from a security point of view as these are
often invoked by the superuser and search the entire filesystem
hierarchy.  Generally, the severity of any associated problem depends
on what the system is going to do with the files found by `find'.

* Menu:

* Levels of Risk::	What is your level of exposure to security problems?
* Security Considerations for find::  Security problems with find
* Security Considerations for xargs:: Security problems with xargs
* Security Considerations for locate:: Security problems with locate
* Security Summary:: That was all very complex, what does it boil down to?

File: find.info,  Node: Levels of Risk,	 Next: Security Considerations for find,  Up: Security Considerations

9.1 Levels of Risk
==================

There are some security risks inherent in the use of `find', `xargs'
and (to a lesser extent) `locate'.  The severity of these risks depends
on what sort of system you are using:

*High risk*
     Multi-user systems where you do not control (or trust) the other
     users, and on which you execute `find', including areas where
     those other users can manipulate the filesystem (for example
     beneath `/home' or `/tmp').

*Medium Risk*
     Systems where the actions of other users can create file names
     chosen by them, but to which they don't have access while `find' is
     being run.	 This access might include leaving programs running
     (shell background jobs, `at' or `cron' tasks, for example).  On
     these sorts of systems, carefully written commands (avoiding use of
     `-print' for example) should not expose you to a high degree of
     risk.  Most systems fall into this category.

*Low Risk*
     Systems to which untrusted parties do not have access, cannot
     create file names of their own choice (even remotely) and which
     contain no security flaws which might enable an untrusted third
     party to gain access.  Most systems do not fall into this category
     because there are many ways in which external parties can affect
     the names of files that are created on your system.  The system on
     which I am writing this for example automatically downloads
     software updates from the Internet; the names of the files in
     which these updates exist are chosen by third parties(1).

   In the discussion above, "risk" denotes the likelihood that someone
can cause `find', `xargs', `locate' or some other program which is
controlled by them to do something you did not intend.	The levels of
risk suggested do not take any account of the consequences of this sort
of event.  That is, if you operate a "low risk" type system, but the
consequences of a security problem are disastrous, then you should
still give serious thought to all the possible security problems, many
of which of course will not be discussed here - this section of the
manual is intended to be informative but not comprehensive or
exhaustive.

   If you are responsible for the operation of a system where the
consequences of a security problem could be very important, you should
do two things:-

  1. Define a security policy which defines who is allowed to do what
     on your system.

  2. Seek competent advice on how to enforce your policy, detect
     breaches of that policy, and take account of any potential problems
     that might fall outside the scope of your policy.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Of course, I trust these parties to a large extent anyway,
because I install software provided by them; I choose to trust them in
this way, and that's a deliberate choice

File: find.info,  Node: Security Considerations for find,  Next: Security Considerations for xargs,  Prev: Levels of Risk,  Up: Security Considerations

9.2 Security Considerations for `find'
======================================

Some of the actions `find' might take have a direct effect; these
include `-exec' and `-delete'.	However, it is also common to use
`-print' explicitly or implicitly, and so if `find' produces the wrong
list of file names, that can also be a security problem; consider the
case for example where `find' is producing a list of files to be
deleted.

   We normally assume that the `find' command line expresses the file
selection criteria and actions that the user had in mind - that is, the
command line is "trusted" data.

   From a security analysis point of view, the output of `find' should
be correct; that is, the output should contain only the names of those
files which meet the user's criteria specified on the command line.
This applies for the `-exec' and `-delete' actions; one can consider
these to be part of the output.

   On the other hand, the contents of the filesystem can be manipulated
by other people, and hence we regard this as "untrusted" data.	This
implies that the `find' command line is a filter which converts the
untrusted contents of the filesystem into a correct list of output
files.

   The filesystem will in general change while `find' is searching it;
in fact, most of the potential security problems with `find' relate to
this issue in some way.

   "Race conditions" are a general class of security problem where the
relative ordering of actions taken by `find' (for example) and
something else are critically important in getting the correct and
expected result(1) .

   For `find', an attacker might move or rename files or directories in
the hope that an action might be taken against a file which was not
normally intended to be affected.  Alternatively, this sort of attack
might be intended to persuade `find' to search part of the filesystem
which would not normally be included in the search (defeating the
`-prune' action for example).

* Menu:

* Problems with -exec and filenames::
* Changing the Current Working Directory::
* Race Conditions with -exec::
* Race Conditions with -print and -print0::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is more or less the definition of the term "race condition"

File: find.info,  Node: Problems with -exec and filenames,  Next: Changing the Current Working Directory,  Up: Security Considerations for find

9.2.1 Problems with -exec and filenames
---------------------------------------

It is safe in many cases to use the `-execdir' action with any file
name.  Because `-execdir' prefixes the arguments it passes to programs
with `./', you will not accidentally pass an argument which is
interpreted as an option.  For example the file `-f' would be passed to
`rm' as `./-f', which is harmless.

   However, your degree of safety does depend on the nature of the
program you are running.  For example constructs such as these two
commands

     find -exec sh -c "something {}" ;
     find -execdir sh -c "something {}" ;

   are very dangerous.	The reason for this is that the `{}' is
expanded to a filename which might contain a semicolon or other
characters special to the shell.  If for example someone creates the
file `/tmp/foo; rm -rf $HOME' then the two commands above could delete
someone's home directory.

   So for this reason do not run any command which will pass untrusted
data (such as the names of files) to commands which interpret arguments
as commands to be further interpreted (for example `sh').

File: find.info,  Node: Changing the Current Working Directory,	 Next: Race Conditions with -exec,  Prev: Problems with -exec and filenames,  Up: Security Considerations for find

9.2.2 Changing the Current Working Directory
--------------------------------------------

As `find' searches the filesystem, it finds subdirectories and then
searches within them by changing its working directory.	 First, `find'
reaches and recognises a subdirectory.	It then decides if that
subdirectory meets the criteria for being searched; that is, any
`-xdev' or `-prune' expressions are taken into account.	 The `find'
program will then change working directory and proceed to search the
directory.

   A race condition attack might take the form that once the checks
relevant to `-xdev' and `-prune' have been done, an attacker might
rename the directory that was being considered, and put in its place a
symbolic link that actually points somewhere else.

   The idea behind this attack is to fool `find' into going into the
wrong directory.  This would leave `find' with a working directory
chosen by an attacker, bypassing any protection apparently provided by
`-xdev' and `-prune', and any protection provided by being able to
_not_ list particular directories on the `find' command line.  This
form of attack is particularly problematic if the attacker can predict
when the `find' command will be run, as is the case with `cron' tasks
for example.

   GNU `find' has specific safeguards to prevent this general class of
problem.  The exact form of these safeguards depends on the properties
of your system.

* Menu:

* O_NOFOLLOW::			   Safely changing directory using fchdir().
* Systems without O_NOFOLLOW::	   Checking for symbolic links after chdir().

File: find.info,  Node: O_NOFOLLOW,  Next: Systems without O_NOFOLLOW,	Up: Changing the Current Working Directory

9.2.2.1 O_NOFOLLOW
..................

If your system supports the O_NOFOLLOW flag (1) to the `open(2)' system
call, `find' uses it when safely changing directory.  The target
directory is first opened and then `find' changes working directory
with the `fchdir()' system call.  This ensures that symbolic links are
not followed, preventing the sort of race condition attack in which use
is made of symbolic links.

   If for any reason this approach does not work, `find' will fall back
on the method which is normally used if O_NOFOLLOW is not supported.

   You can tell if your system supports O_NOFOLLOW by running

     find --version

   This will tell you the version number and which features are enabled.
For example, if I run this on my system now, this gives:
     GNU find version 4.2.18-CVS
     Features enabled: D_TYPE O_NOFOLLOW(enabled)

   Here, you can see that I am running a version of `find' which was
built from the development (CVS) code prior to the release of
findutils-4.2.18, and that the D_TYPE and O_NOFOLLOW features are
present.  O_NOFOLLOW is qualified with "enabled".  This simply means
that the current system seems to support O_NOFOLLOW.  This check is
needed because it is possible to build `find' on a system that defines
O_NOFOLLOW and then run it on a system that ignores the O_NOFOLLOW
flag.  We try to detect such cases at startup by checking the operating
system and version number; when this happens you will see
"O_NOFOLLOW(disabled)" instead.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) GNU/Linux (kernel version 2.1.126 and later) and FreeBSD
(3.0-CURRENT and later) support this

File: find.info,  Node: Systems without O_NOFOLLOW,  Prev: O_NOFOLLOW,	Up: Changing the Current Working Directory

9.2.2.2 Systems without O_NOFOLLOW
..................................

The strategy for preventing this type of problem on systems that lack
support for the O_NOFOLLOW flag is more complex.  Each time `find'
changes directory, it examines the directory it is about to move to,
issues the `chdir()' system call, and then checks that it has ended up
in the subdirectory it expected.  If all is as expected, processing
continues as normal.  However, there are two main reasons why the
directory might change: the use of an automounter and the someone
removing the old directory and replacing it with something else while
`find' is trying to descend into it.

   Where a filesystem "automounter" is in use it can be the case that
the use of the `chdir()' system call can itself cause a new filesystem
to be mounted at that point.  On systems that do not support
O_NOFOLLOW, this will cause `find''s security check to fail.

   However, this does not normally represent a security problem, since
the automounter configuration is normally set up by the system
administrator.	Therefore, if the `chdir()' sanity check fails, `find'
will make one more attempt.  If that succeeds, execution carries on as
normal.	 This is the usual case for automounters.

   Where an attacker is trying to exploit a race condition, the problem
may not have gone away on the second attempt.  If this is the case,
`find' will issue a warning message and then ignore that subdirectory.
When this happens, actions such as `-exec' or `-print' may already have
taken place for the problematic subdirectory.  This is because `find'
applies tests and actions to directories before searching within them
(unless `-depth' was specified).

   Because of the nature of the directory-change operation and security
check, in the worst case the only things that `find' would have done
with the directory are to move into it and back out to the original
parent.	 No operations would have been performed within that directory.

File: find.info,  Node: Race Conditions with -exec,  Next: Race Conditions with -print and -print0,  Prev: Changing the Current Working Directory,  Up: Security Considerations for find

9.2.3 Race Conditions with -exec
--------------------------------

The `-exec' action causes another program to be run.  It passes to the
program the name of the file which is being considered at the time.
The invoked program will typically then perform some action on that
file.  Once again, there is a race condition which can be exploited
here.  We shall take as a specific example the command

     find /tmp -path /tmp/umsp/passwd -exec /bin/rm

   In this simple example, we are identifying just one file to be
deleted and invoking `/bin/rm' to delete it.  A problem exists because
there is a time gap between the point where `find' decides that it
needs to process the `-exec' action and the point where the `/bin/rm'
command actually issues the `unlink()' system call to delete the file
from the filesystem.  Within this time period, an attacker can rename
the `/tmp/umsp' directory, replacing it with a symbolic link to `/etc'.
There is no way for `/bin/rm' to determine that it is working on the
same file that `find' had in mind.  Once the symbolic link is in place,
the attacker has persuaded `find' to cause the deletion of the
`/etc/passwd' file, which is not the effect intended by the command
which was actually invoked.

   One possible defence against this type of attack is to modify the
behaviour of `-exec' so that the `/bin/rm' command is run with the
argument `./passwd' and a suitable choice of working directory.	 This
would allow the normal sanity check that `find' performs to protect
against this form of attack too.  Unfortunately, this strategy cannot
be used as the POSIX standard specifies that the current working
directory for commands invoked with `-exec' must be the same as the
current working directory from which `find' was invoked.  This means
that the `-exec' action is inherently insecure and can't be fixed.

   GNU `find' implements a more secure variant of the `-exec' action,
`-execdir'.  The `-execdir' action ensures that it is not necessary to
dereference subdirectories to process target files.  The current
directory used to invoke programs is the same as the directory in which
the file to be processed exists (`/tmp/umsp' in our example, and only
the basename of the file to be processed is passed to the invoked
command, with a `./' prepended (giving `./passwd' in our example).

   The `-execdir' action refuses to do anything if the current
directory is included in the $PATH environment variable.  This is
necessary because `-execdir' runs programs in the same directory in
which it finds files - in general, such a directory might be writable
by untrusted users.  For similar reasons, `-execdir' does not allow
`{}' to appear in the name of the command to be run.

File: find.info,  Node: Race Conditions with -print and -print0,  Prev: Race Conditions with -exec,  Up: Security Considerations for find

9.2.4 Race Conditions with -print and -print0
---------------------------------------------

The `-print' and `-print0' actions can be used to produce a list of
files matching some criteria, which can then be used with some other
command, perhaps with `xargs'.	Unfortunately, this means that there is
an unavoidable time gap between `find' deciding that one or more files
meet its criteria and the relevant command being executed.  For this
reason, the `-print' and `-print0' actions are just as insecure as
`-exec'.

   In fact, since the construction

     find ...  -print | xargs ....

   does not cope correctly with newlines or other "white space" in file
names, and copes poorly with file names containing quotes, the `-print'
action is less secure even than `-print0'.

File: find.info,  Node: Security Considerations for xargs,  Next: Security Considerations for locate,  Prev: Security Considerations for find,	Up: Security Considerations

9.3 Security Considerations for `xargs'
=======================================

The description of the race conditions affecting the `-print' action of
`find' shows that `xargs' cannot be secure if it is possible for an
attacker to modify a filesystem after `find' has started but before
`xargs' has completed all its actions.

   However, there are other security issues that exist even if it is not
possible for an attacker to have access to the filesystem in real time.
Firstly, if it is possible for an attacker to create files with names
of their choice on the filesystem, then `xargs' is insecure unless the
`-0' option is used.  If a file with the name
`/home/someuser/foo/bar
/etc/passwd' exists (assume that `
' stands
for a newline character), then `find ... -print' can be persuaded to
print three separate lines:

     /home/someuser/foo/bar

     /etc/passwd

   If it finds a blank line in the input, `xargs' will ignore it.
Therefore, if some action is to be taken on the basis of this list of
files, the `/etc/passwd' file would be included even if this was not
the intent of the person running find.	There are circumstances in
which an attacker can use this to their advantage.  The same
consideration applies to file names containing ordinary spaces rather
than newlines, except that of course the list of file names will no
longer contain an "extra" newline.

   This problem is an unavoidable consequence of the default behaviour
of the `xargs' command, which is specified by the POSIX standard.  The
only ways to avoid this problem are either to avoid all use of `xargs'
in favour for example of `find -exec' or (where available) `find
-execdir', or to use the `-0' option, which ensures that `xargs'
considers file names to be separated by ASCII NUL characters rather
than whitespace.  However, useful as this option is, the POSIX standard
does not make it mandatory.

File: find.info,  Node: Security Considerations for locate,  Next: Security Summary,  Prev: Security Considerations for xargs,	Up: Security Considerations

9.4 Security Considerations for `locate'
========================================

9.4.1 Race Conditions
---------------------

It is fairly unusual for the output of `locate' to be fed into another
command.  However, if this were to be done, this would raise the same
set of security issues as the use of `find ...	-print'.  Although the
problems relating to whitespace in file names can be resolved by the
`-0' option of `locate', this still leaves the race condition problems
associated with `find ...  -print0'.  There is no way to avoid these
problems in the case of `locate'.

9.4.2 Long File Name Bugs with Old-Format Databases
---------------------------------------------------

All versions of `locate' prior to 4.2.31 have a bug in the way that
old-format databases are read.	They read file names into a
fixed-length 1026 byte buffer, allocated on the heap.  This buffer is
not extended if file names are too long to fit into the buffer.	 No
range checking on the length of the filename is performed.  This could
in theory lead to a privilege escalation attack.  Findutils versions
4.3.0 to 4.3.6 are also affected.

   On systems using the old database format and affected versions of
`locate', carefully-chosen long file names could in theory allow
malicious users to run code of their choice as any user invoking locate.

   If remote users can choose the names of files stored on your system,
and these files are indexed by `updatedb', this may be a remote
security vulnerability.	 Findutils version 4.2.31 fixes this problem.
The `updatedb', `bigram' and `code' programs do no appear to be
affected.

   If you are also using GNU coreutils, you can use the following
command to determine the length of the longest file name on a given
system:

     find / -print0 | tr -c '\0' 'x' | tr '\0' '
' | wc -L

   Although this problem is significant, the old database format is not
the default, and use of the old database format is not common.	Most
installations and most users will not be affected by this problem.

File: find.info,  Node: Security Summary,  Prev: Security Considerations for locate,  Up: Security Considerations

9.5 Summary
===========

Where untrusted parties can create files on the system, or affect the
names of files that are created, all uses for `find', `locate' and
`xargs' have known security problems except the following:

Informational use only
     Uses where the programs are used to prepare lists of file names
     upon which no further action will ever be taken.

`-delete'
     Use of the `-delete' action with `find' to delete files which meet
     specified criteria

`-execdir'
     Use of the `-execdir' action with `find' where the `PATH'
     environment variable contains directories which contain only
     trusted programs.

File: find.info,  Node: Error Messages,	 Next: Primary Index,  Prev: Security Considerations,  Up: Top

10 Error Messages
*****************

This section describes some of the error messages sometimes made by
`find', `xargs', or `locate', explains them and in some cases provides
advice as to what you should do about this.

   This manual is written in English.  The GNU findutils software
features translations of error messages for many languages.  For this
reason the error messages produced by the programs are made to be as
self-explanatory as possible.  This approach avoids leaving people to
figure out which test an English-language error message corresponds to.
Error messages which are self-explanatory will not normally be
mentioned in this document.  For those messages mentioned in this
document, only the English-language version of the message will be
listed.

* Menu:

* Error Messages From find::
* Error Messages From xargs::
* Error Messages From locate::
* Error Messages From updatedb::

File: find.info,  Node: Error Messages From find,  Next: Error Messages From xargs,  Up: Error Messages

10.1 Error Messages From `find'
===============================

`invalid predicate `-foo''
     This means that the `find' command line included something that
     started with a dash or other special character.  The `find'
     program tried to interpret this as a test, action or option, but
     didn't recognise it.  If it was intended to be a test, check what
     was specified against the documentation.  If, on the other hand,
     the string is the name of a file which has been expanded from a
     wildcard (for example because you have a `*' on the command line),
     consider using `./*' or just `.' instead.

`unexpected extra predicate'
     This usually happens if you have an extra bracket on the command
     line (for example `find . -print )').

`Warning: filesystem /path/foo has recently been mounted'
`Warning: filesystem /path/foo has recently been unmounted'
     These messages might appear when `find' moves into a directory and
     finds that the device number and inode are different to what it
     expected them to be.  If the directory `find' has moved into is on
     an network filesystem (NFS), it will not issue this message,
     because `automount' frequently mounts new filesystems on
     directories as you move into them (that is how it knows you want
     to use the filesystem).  So, if you do see this message, be wary --
     `automount' may not have been responsible.	 Consider the
     possibility that someone else is manipulating the filesystem while
     `find' is running.	 Some people might do this in order to mislead
     `find' or persuade it to look at one set of files when it thought
     it was looking at another set.

`/path/foo changed during execution of find (old device number 12345, new device number 6789, filesystem type is <whatever>) [ref XXX]'
     This message is issued when `find' moves into a directory and ends
     up somewhere it didn't expect to be.  This happens in one of two
     circumstances.  Firstly, this happens when `automount' intervenes
     on a system where `find' doesn't know how to determine what the
     current set of mounted filesystems is.

     Secondly, this can happen when the device number of a directory
     appears to change during a change of current directory, but `find'
     is moving up the filesystem hierarchy rather than down into it.
     In order to prevent `find' wandering off into some unexpected part
     of the filesystem, we stop it at this point.

`Don't know how to use getmntent() to read `/etc/mtab'.	 This is a bug.'
     This message is issued when a problem similar to the above occurs
     on a system where `find' doesn't know how to figure out the current
     list of mount points.  Ask for help on <bug-findutils@gnu.org>.

`/path/foo/bar changed during execution of find (old inode number 12345, new inode number 67893, filesystem type is <whatever>) [ref XXX]"),'
     This message is issued when `find' moves into a directory and
     discovers that the inode number of that directory is different
     from the inode number that it obtained when it examined the
     directory previously.  This usually means that while `find' was
     deep in a directory hierarchy doing a time consuming operation,
     somebody has moved one of the parent directories to another
     location in the same filesystem.  This may or may not have been
     done maliciously.	In any case, `find' stops at this point to
     avoid traversing parts of the filesystem that it wasn't intended.
     You can use `ls -li' or `find /path -inum 12345 -o -inum 67893' to
     find out more about what has happened.

`sanity check of the fnmatch() library function failed.'
     Please submit a bug report.  You may well be asked questions about
     your system, and if you compiled the `findutils' code yourself,
     you should keep your copy of the build tree around.  The likely
     explanation is that your system has a buggy implementation of
     `fnmatch' that looks enough like the GNU version to fool
     `configure', but which doesn't work properly.

`cannot fork'
     This normally happens if you use the `-exec' action or something
     similar (`-ok' and so forth) but the system has run out of free
     process slots.  This is either because the system is very busy and
     the system has reached its maximum process limit, or because you
     have a resource limit in place and you've reached it.  Check the
     system for runaway processes (with `ps', if possible).  Some
     process slots are normally reserved for use by `root'.

`some-program terminated by signal 99'
     Some program which was launched with `-exec' or similar was killed
     with a fatal signal.  This is just an advisory message.

File: find.info,  Node: Error Messages From xargs,  Next: Error Messages From locate,  Prev: Error Messages From find,	Up: Error Messages

10.2 Error Messages From xargs
==============================

`environment is too large for exec'
     This message means that you have so many environment variables set
     (or such large values for them) that there is no room within the
     system-imposed limits on program command line argument length to
     invoke any program.  This is an unlikely situation and is more
     likely result of an attempt to test the limits of `xargs', or
     break it.	Please try unsetting some environment variables, or
     exiting the current shell.	 You can also use `xargs --show-limits'
     to understand the relevant sizes.

`can not fit single argument within argument list size limit'
     You are using the `-I' option and `xargs' doesn't have enough
     space to build a command line because it has read a really large
     item and it doesn't fit.  You can probably work around this
     problem with the `-s' option, but the default size is pretty
     large.  This is a rare situation and is more likely an attempt to
     test the limits of `xargs', or break it.  Otherwise, you will need
     to try to shorten the problematic argument or not use `xargs'.

`cannot fork'
     See the description of the similar message for `find'.

`<program>: exited with status 255; aborting'
     When a command run by `xargs' exits with status 255, `xargs' is
     supposed to stop.	If this is not what you intended, wrap the
     program you are trying to invoke in a shell script which doesn't
     return status 255.

`<program>: terminated by signal 99'
     See the description of the similar message for `find'.

File: find.info,  Node: Error Messages From locate,  Next: Error Messages From updatedb,  Prev: Error Messages From xargs,  Up: Error Messages

10.3 Error Messages From `locate'
=================================

`warning: database `/usr/local/var/locatedb' is more than 8 days old'
     The `locate' program relies on a database which is periodically
     built by the `updatedb' program.  That hasn't happened in a long
     time.  To fix this problem, run `updatedb' manually.  This can
     often happen on systems that are generally not left on, so the
     periodic "cron" task which normally does this doesn't get a chance
     to run.

`locate database `/usr/local/var/locatedb' is corrupt or invalid'
     This should not happen.  Re-run `updatedb'.  If that works, but
     `locate' still produces this error, run `locate --version' and
     `updatedb --version'.  These should produce the same output.  If
     not, you are using a mixed toolset; check your `$PATH' environment
     variable and your shell aliases (if you have any).	 If both
     programs claim to be GNU versions, this is a bug; all versions of
     these programs should interoperate without problem.  Ask for help
     on <bug-findutils@gnu.org>.

File: find.info,  Node: Error Messages From updatedb,  Prev: Error Messages From locate,  Up: Error Messages

10.4 Error Messages From updatedb
=================================

The `updatedb' program (and the programs it invokes) do issue error
messages, but none seem to be candidates for guidance.	If you are
having a problem understanding one of these, ask for help on
<bug-findutils@gnu.org>.

File: find.info,  Node: Primary Index,	Prev: Error Messages,  Up: Top

`find' Primary Index
********************

This is a list of all of the primaries (tests, actions, and options)
that make up `find' expressions for selecting files.  *Note find
Expressions::, for more information on expressions.

[inde]
* Menu:

* !:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  14)
* ():					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  10)
* ,:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  27)
* -a:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  20)
* -amin:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  18)
* -and:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  20)
* -anewer:				 Comparing Timestamps.
							      (line  17)
* -atime:				 Age Ranges.	      (line   9)
* -cmin:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  19)
* -cnewer:				 Comparing Timestamps.
							      (line  18)
* -ctime:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  10)
* -d:					 Directories.	      (line  29)
* -daystart:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  29)
* -delete:				 Delete Files.	      (line   7)
* -depth:				 Directories.	      (line  21)
* -empty:				 Size.		      (line  50)
* -exec <1>:				 Multiple Files.      (line  25)
* -exec:				 Single File.	      (line  34)
* -execdir <1>:				 Multiple Files.      (line  15)
* -execdir:				 Single File.	      (line   9)
* -false:				 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  47)
* -fls:					 Print File Information.
							      (line  48)
* -fprint:				 Print File Name.     (line  13)
* -fprint0:				 Safe File Name Handling.
							      (line  16)
* -fprintf:				 Print File Information.
							      (line  65)
* -fstype:				 Filesystems.	      (line  22)
* -gid:					 Owner.		      (line  13)
* -group:				 Owner.		      (line   8)
* -ignore_readdir_race:			 Directories.	      (line  86)
* -ilname:				 Symbolic Links.      (line  87)
* -iname:				 Base Name Patterns.  (line   8)
* -inum:				 Hard Links.	      (line  41)
* -ipath:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line  20)
* -iregex:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line  26)
* -iwholename:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line   8)
* -links:				 Hard Links.	      (line  53)
* -lname:				 Symbolic Links.      (line  86)
* -ls:					 Print File Information.
							      (line   7)
* -maxdepth:				 Directories.	      (line  11)
* -mindepth:				 Directories.	      (line  16)
* -mmin:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  20)
* -mount:				 Filesystems.	      (line  15)
* -mtime:				 Age Ranges.	      (line  11)
* -name:				 Base Name Patterns.  (line   7)
* -newer:				 Comparing Timestamps.
							      (line  19)
* -nogroup:				 Owner.		      (line  18)
* -noignore_readdir_race:		 Directories.	      (line 103)
* -noleaf:				 Directories.	      (line  71)
* -not:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  14)
* -nouser:				 Owner.		      (line  17)
* -o:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  24)
* -ok:					 Querying.	      (line  17)
* -okdir:				 Querying.	      (line  11)
* -or:					 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  24)
* -path:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line  19)
* -perm:				 Permissions.	      (line  10)
* -print:				 Print File Name.     (line   7)
* -print0:				 Safe File Name Handling.
							      (line  12)
* -printf:				 Print File Information.
							      (line  53)
* -prune:				 Directories.	      (line  34)
* -quit:				 Directories.	      (line  62)
* -regex:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line  25)
* -regextype:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line  37)
* -samefile:				 Hard Links.	      (line  36)
* -size:				 Size.		      (line   7)
* -true:				 Combining Primaries With Operators.
							      (line  44)
* -type:				 Type.		      (line   7)
* -uid:					 Owner.		      (line  12)
* -used:				 Comparing Timestamps.
							      (line  29)
* -user:				 Owner.		      (line   7)
* -wholename:				 Full Name Patterns.  (line   7)
* -xdev:				 Filesystems.	      (line  14)
* -xtype:				 Type.		      (line  36)