wodim

write data to optical disk media

NAME

       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS

       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE

       There  may  be  similarities  and  differences between this program and
       other disk  recording  application(s).  See  the  CREDITS  and  AUTHORS
       sections below to learn about the origin of wodim.

DESCRIPTION

       wodim  is  used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book
       CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device file or label offered by the operating  system
       to access the recorder with SCSI GENERIC (sg) interface. Note that some
       operating systems may provide separate device nodes for  block-oriented
       and  sg  access. For example, on older Linux systems, the sg access was
       available through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented access was
       done  through associated (but not identical) /dev/hd...  and /dev/sr...
       (or /dev/scd...  ) files.

       In any case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to  the
       particular  device file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root
       or install the application as suid-root, because  certain  versions  of
       Linux  (kernel)  limit  the  set  of SCSI commands allowed for non-root
       users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many  cases,
       some  device  drivers  still  may fail, show unexplainable problems and
       generally the problems become harder to debug.  The  risk  for  buffer-
       underruns  is  also  increased.  See  the  PROCESS  SCHEDULING PRIORITY
       section below for more details.

       There is an  alternative  way  of  specifying  the  device,  using  the
       traditional  SCSI  descriptions  in  form  of devicetype:bus/target/lun
       specification. However, the success of this method  is  not  guaranteed
       since  it  requires an adaptation scheme for your architecture, and the
       numbers may vary depending on the hardware-internal numbering or on the
       order  of  hot-plug device detection. If your operating system does not
       provide a sufficient framework for  keeping  this  numbers  persistent,
       don't  rely  on  them.  See  -scanbus  and  --devices options below for
       details.

       There are emulated SCSI  compatible  device  systems,  using  the  SCSI
       protocols transported over various hardware/media types. The most known
       examples is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB storage ("external USB case").
       If  the  pseudo-SCSI b/t/l device address specification is used instead
       of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:" description to
       the emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If  a file /etc/wodim.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option may
       also be a drive name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As a special exception, the device specification  can  be  -1  or  just
       omitted,  which invokes automatic guessing of an appropriate device for
       the  selected  operation.  However,  this  guessing  is  not  available
       everywhere  and  is  not  reliable; it is only available for the user's
       convenience in simple environments.

       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to  a  single  file  that
       contains  the  prepared  data  for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard input is used for that track.  Only one  track  may  be  taken
       from  stdin.   In  the  other  write  modes,  the  direct file to track
       relation may not  be  implemented.   In  -clone  mode,  a  single  file
       contains  all  data  for  the  whole  disk.   To  allow  DVD writing on
       platforms that do not implement large file support, wodim  concatenates
       all file arguments to a single track when writing to DVD media.

PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY

       Wodim  tries  to  get  higher process priority using different methods.
       This is important because the burn process is usually a realtime  task,
       no  long  delays  should  occur  while  transmitting  fresh data to the
       recorder. This is especially important on systems with insufficient RAM
       where swapping can create delays of many seconds.

       A  possible  workaround  on  underpowered  systems  is  the  use of the
       burnfree or similar feature, allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root permissions are usually required to get higher process  scheduling
       priority.

       On  SVr4  compliant  systems, wodim uses the real time class to get the
       highest scheduling priority that is possible (higher  than  all  kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling wodim uses real
       time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain  a  priority  that  is
       higher than all kernel processes.

       In  order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run
       at highest priority and lock itself into core wodim either needs to  be
       run  as  root,  needs  to  be installed suid root or must be called via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

GENERAL OPTIONS

       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.  This  is  used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by one.   This  helps  to  debug  problems  during  the  writing
              process,   that  occur  in  the  CD/DVD-Recorder.   If  you  get
              incomprehensible error messages you should use this flag to  get
              more  detailed  output.   -VV  will  show data buffer content in
              addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set  the  misc  debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
              misc debug level by one (with -d).  If  you  specify  -dd,  this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a driver for libusal as well as with  sector  sizes  and  sector
              types.   Using  -debug  slows  down  the  process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force  to  continue  on  some errors. Be careful when using this
              option.  wodim implements several checks that prevent  you  from
              doing  unwanted  things  like  damaging  CD-RW media by improper
              drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when  the  -force
              option is used.

              This  option  also implements some tricks that will allow you to
              blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell wodim to set  the  SCSI  IMMED  flag  in  certain  commands
              (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).    This   can   be
              useful on broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and  CD/DVD  writer
              on   the   same   bus  or  with  SCSI  systems  that  don't  use
              disconnect/reconnect.  These systems will freeze while  blanking
              or  fixating  a  CD/DVD  or  while  a DVD writer is filling up a
              session to the minimum amount (approx.  800  MB).   Setting  the
              -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
              the operation proceeds in background, making the bus usable  for
              the  other  devices  and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an
              experimental feature which may work or  not,  depending  on  the
              model  of the CD/DVD writer.  A correct solution would be to set
              up a correct cabling but there seem to be notebooks around  that
              have  been  set  up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it is
              impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the  -immed  option
              has been added.

              A  second  experimental  feature  of  the -immed flag is to tell
              wodim to try to wait short times while  writing  to  the  media.
              This  is  expected  to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD writer and
              the data source are connected to the same  IDE  cable.  In  this
              case,  the  CD/DVD  writer would otherwise usually block the IDE
              bus for nearly all the time making it impossible to  fetch  data
              from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

              Use  both  features  at  your own risk.  If it turns out that it
              would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
              write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
              The  #  minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer
              fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
              to  free  the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer to be
              on the same IDE cable.  As the wait mode  currently  only  works
              when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the
              verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=  option  have  been
              specified.   Valid  values for minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for
              25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The CD/DVD-Recorder will go through all steps of  the  recording
              process,  but the laser is turned off during this procedure.  It
              is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
              Compact  Disk  or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing and load
              response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells wodim to handle images  created  by  readom  -clone.   The
              -clone  may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r or
              with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with  -raw96r  is
              preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.  The option
              -raw16 should only be used with drives that do  not  support  to
              write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set  SAO  (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk At
              Once mode.  This currently  only  works  with  MMC  drives  that
              support Session At Once mode.  Note that wodim needs to know the
              size of each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage
              -print-size   option   and   the   EXAMPLES   section  for  more
              information).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
              mode  in  previous wodim versions.  With most drives, this write
              mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this option  defaults  to  -raw96r.
              Note  that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
              for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size  option  and  the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of raw P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector  size  of  2448
              bytes.   This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best
              control over the CD writing process.  If you find  any  problems
              with  the  layout  of  a  disk or with sub channel content (e.g.
              wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and  your  drive
              supports  to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it
              a try. There are several  CD  writers  with  bad  firmware  that
              result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing
              data disks in raw mode needs significantly more  CPU  time  than
              other  write  modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
              buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to  know  the  size  of
              each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-
              size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
              few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
              in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this  mode  if  your
              recorder  supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in raw
              mode needs significantly more CPU time than other  write  modes.
              If  your  CPU  is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
              Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in  advance
              for  this  mode  (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
              of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
              If a recorder does not support -raw96r, this  is  the  preferred
              raw  writing  mode.   It  does  not  allow  to  write CD-Text or
              CD+Graphics but it is the only raw  writing  mode  in  cheap  CD
              writers.   As  these  cheap writers in most cases do not support
              -dao mode.  Don't  use  this  mode  if  your  recorder  supports
              -raw96r.   Writing  data  disks  in raw mode needs significantly
              more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is  too  slow,
              this  may  result in buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to
              know the size of each track in advance for this  mode  (see  the
              genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
              information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to  be  made.  This  flag  needs  to  be
              present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
              to create a session that will be the last session on the  media.
              The  fixation  will  be  done  in  a way that allows the CD/DVD-
              Recorder to append additional sessions later. This  is  done  by
              generation  a  TOC  with a link to the next program area. The so
              generated media is  not  100%  compatible  to  manufactured  CDs
              (except  for  CDplus).   Use only for recording of multi session
              CDs.  If this option is present, the default track type  is  CD-
              ROM  XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.  The XA
              sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony drives
              have  no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  You have
              to specify the -data option in order  to  create  multi  session
              disks  on  these drives.  As long as wodim does not have a coder
              for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to  force
              CD-ROM  sectors  by  including  the  -data option if you like to
              record a multisession disk in SAO mode.  Not  all  drives  allow
              multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve  multi  session info in a form suitable for genisoimage
              and print it to standard output. See msifile= option for another
              version.

              This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that contains at least
              one closed session and is appendable (not finally  closed  yet).
              Some  drives  create  error messages if you try to get the multi
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       msifile=filename
              Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in  a
              file.

       -toc   Retrieve  and  print  out  the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
              With this option, wodim will work with CD-R drives and with  CD-
              ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve  and  print  out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove)
              info of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable  media.   With
              this  option,  wodim  will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
              actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
              that  only  a reduced set of information records or even nothing
              is displayed. Only a limited  number  of  MMC  compliant  drives
              support to read the ATIP info.

              If  wodim  is  able  to  retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
              info  from  the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
              but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
              and printed.

       -fix   The  disk  will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
              been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the  tracks.  This  may  be
              used  to  create  an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
              audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait  for  input  to  become  available on standard input before
              trying to open the SCSI driver. This allows wodim  to  read  its
              input  from  a  pipe  even when writing additional sessions to a
              multi session disk.  When writing another  session  to  a  multi
              session disk, genisoimage needs to read the old session from the
              device before writing output.  This  cannot  be  done  if  wodim
              opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the  media  and  exit. This only works with a tray loading
              mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the  Kodak  disk
              transporter.

       -lock  Load  the  media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
              tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
              Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips)
              need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
              -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
              on these devices.

       speed=#
              Set the speed factor of the writing  process  to  #.   #  is  an
              integer,  representing  a  multiple of the audio speed.  This is
              about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM, about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio and about
              1385 kB/s  for  DVD media.  If no speed option is present, wodim
              will try to get a drive  specific  speed  value  from  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf  and  if  it cannot find one, it will try to get
              the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment  and  later  from
              the  CDR_SPEED=  entry  in  /etc/wodim.conf.   If no speed value
              could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.   The
              default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum
              supported by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
              drive,  wodim will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive
              and medium.  If you are using an old (non MMC)  drive  that  has
              problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
              Blank  a  CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       Not  all  drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use
       blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid.   If
       used  together  with  the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify  blank=all  because  some drives will not continue with certain
       types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that wodim does  its  best  if  the
       -force  flag  is  used  but  it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
              Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is currently only
              implemented  for DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to
              be formatted before you may write  to  it.   However,  as  wodim
              autodetects  the  need  for  formatting  in  this  case and auto
              formats the medium before it starts writing, the -format  option
              is only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set  the  FIFO  (ring  buffer)  size to #.  You may use the same
              syntax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number  representing
              the  size  is  taken  in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a
              number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s'  or
              `f',  the  size  is  multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or
              2352.  If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or  `*',
              multiplication  of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k
              will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by  the  fs=  argument  includes  the  shared
              memory  that  is needed for administration. This is at least one
              page of memory.  If no fs= option is present, wodim will try  to
              get  the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
              default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
              process.  It allows to run a pipe from genisoimage directly into
              wodim.  If the FIFO is active and a pipe from  genisoimage  into
              wodim  is  used to create a CD, wodim will abort prior to do any
              modifications on the disk if genisoimage dies before  it  starts
              writing.  The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
              As a rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at  least  equal  to
              the  size  of  the internal buffer of the CD/DVD-Recorder and no
              more than half of the physical amount of RAM  available  in  the
              machine.   If  the  FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics
              will print a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min  fill  is
              not  below  20%.   It  is not wise to use too much space for the
              FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a  speed  less
              than  20x  from  an  image  on  a  local  file system on an idle
              machine, your  machine  is  either  underpowered,  has  hardware
              problems or is mis-configured.  If you like to write DVDs or CDs
              at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least  16 MB  for  the
              FIFO.

              On  old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the
              FIFO size.  If your machine has less  than  256 MB  of  physical
              RAM,  you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than 32 MB.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
              table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
              14 MBytes for the FIFO may cause the operating  system  in  this
              case  to  spend  much  time to constantly reload the MMU tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
              have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

              Old  Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken definitions
              for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
              kernel or manually tell wodim to use a smaller FIFO.

              If  you  have  buffer  underruns  or  similar  problems  (like a
              constantly empty drive buffer) and observe  a  zero  fifo  empty
              count,  you  have  hardware problems that prevents the data from
              flowing fast enough from the kernel memory  to  the  drive.  The
              FIFO size in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a
              working DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI  command  to  #.
              The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for wodim fs=# or
              sdd bs=#.

              If no ts=  option  has  been  specified,  wodim  defaults  to  a
              transfer  size  of  63 kB. If libusal gets lower values from the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is  possible  with  the current operating system.  Sometimes, it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
              but  note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
              Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see  notes  above.
              A  typical  device  specification  is  dev=6,0  .  A filename or
              virtual device name can be passed instead of the  symbolic  SCSI
              numbers.   The correct device/filename in this case can be found
              in the system specific manuals of the target  operating  system.
              On  a  FreeBSD  system  without CAM support, you need to use the
              control  device  (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).    A   correct   device
              specification in this case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On  Linux  and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible with their
              device (or drive) names or with the symbolic SCSI  numbers  (not
              recommended,  mapping  is  not  stable  and  could be completely
              removed in the future).

              If no dev option is present, wodim will try to  get  the  device
              from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If  the  argument  to  the  dev=  option  does  not  contain the
              characters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as  an  label
              name  that  may  be found in the file /etc/wodim.conf (see FILES
              section).

       gracetime=#
              Set the grace time  before  starting  to  write  to  #  seconds.
              Values below 2 seconds are not recommended to give the kernel or
              volume management a chance to learn the new state.

       timeout=#
              Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #  seconds.   The
              default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
              sending SCSI commands.   If  a  SCSI  command  fails  due  to  a
              timeout,  you  may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout
              above the timeout value of the failed command.  If  the  command
              runs  correctly with a raised command timeout, please report the
              better timeout value and the corresponding command to the author
              of  the  program.   If  no  timeout option is present, a default
              timeout of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
              Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
              reason  for  the existence of the driver=name option is to allow
              users to use wodim with drives that  are  similar  to  supported
              drives  but  not known directly by wodim.  All drives made after
              1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by  one
              of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that wodim is unable to
              find the right  driver  automatically.   Use  this  option  with
              extreme  care.  If  a  wrong  driver  is  used for a device, the
              possibility of creating corrupted disks is  high.   The  minimum
              problem  related  to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy
              will not work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To get a list of possible drivers together with  a  short
                     description.

              mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds a MMC compliant drive that does  not
                     identify  itself  to support writing at all, or that only
                     identifies  to  support  media   or   write   modes   not
                     implemented in wodim.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds a MMC-2  or  MMC-3  compliant  drive
                     that  seems  to support more than one medium type and the
                     tray is open or no medium could be found  to  select  the
                     right  driver.   This  driver  tries  to  close the tray,
                     checks the medium found in the tray and then branches  to
                     the driver that matches the current medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim find  a  MMC  compliant  drive  that  only
                     supports  to  write  CDs  or  a  multi  system drive that
                     contains a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver
                     but  the  device  seems  to  be  made   by   Sony.    The
                     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
                     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
                     and  some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced by
                     Sony proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony  drives
                     (even  newer  ones)  still implement the Sony proprietary
                     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem  to  use
                     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
                     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver  is  auto-
                     selected  whenever wodim finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant
                     drive that supports to  write  DVDs  and  an  appropriate
                     medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
                     writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver  is  auto-
                     selected  whenever  one  of the DVD+ media types that are
                     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
                     then  branches  to  the  driver  that matches the current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  a  DVD+R  medium  is  found  in  an appropriate
                     writer.  Note  that  for  unknown  reason,  the  DVD-Plus
                     alliance  does  not  like that there is a simulation mode
                     for DVD+R media.  The author of wodim tries  to  convince
                     manufacturers  to  implement  a simulation mode for DVD+R
                     and implement support.  DVD+R  only  supports  one  write
                     mode  that  is somewhere between Track At Once and Packet
                     writing; this  mode  is  selected  in  wodim  via  a  the
                     -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in  an  appropriate
                     writer.  As DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before its
                     first  use,  wodim  auto-detects  this  media  state  and
                     performs  a  format before it starts to write.  Note that
                     for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does  not  like
                     that there is a simulation mode nor a way to erase DVD+RW
                     media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that is close
                     to  Packet  writing; this mode is selected in wodim via a
                     the -dao/-sao option.

              cw_7501
                     The driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is  auto-
                     selected  when wodim finds this old pre MMC drive.  wodim
                     supports all write modes for this drive type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when  wodim
                     finds  this  old  pre  MMC drive which has been the first
                     high speed (6x) CD writer for a  long  time.  This  drive
                     behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The  driver  for  Philips  CDD-521  is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is  the  first
                     CD  writer ever made) or one of the other drives that are
                     known to behave  similar  to  this  drive.   All  Philips
                     CDD-521  or  similar  drives  (see  other drivers in this
                     list) do not support Session At Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a  Philips  CDD-521  with very old firmware
                     which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The driver for  Philips  CDD-522  is  auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a Philips CDD-522 which is the successor of
                     the 521 or one of its variants with Kodak  label.   wodim
                     does  not  support  Session  At Once recording with these
                     drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The  driver  for   Philips   CDD-521   with   pessimistic
                     assumptions  is  never  auto-selected.  It may be used by
                     hand with drives  that  behave  similar  to  the  Philips
                     CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The  driver  for  Pioneer  DW-S114X is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds one of  the  old  non  MMC  CD  writers  from
                     Pioneer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The  driver  for  Plasmon  RF  4100 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds this drive. There is no real support for this drive
                     yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds  a  drive with this specific variant of the Philips
                     CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The  generic  SCSI-2  CD-ROM  driver   is   auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim  finds  a  pre  MMC  drive  that does not
                     support writing or a pre MMC writer that is not supported
                     by wodim.

              sony_cdu924
                     The  driver  for  Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds one of the old pre  MMC  CD  writers
                     from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
                     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected whenever  one  of  the
                     drives  is found that is known to the non MMC command set
                     used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that  many  drives  from  JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
                     documented command set and JVC has been unwilling to  fix
                     or  document  the  bugs.   There  is  no  support for the
                     Session At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50  is  auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a  drive  with this specific variant of the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is  auto-selected
                     when  wodim  finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers from
                     Yamaha.  There is no support  for  the  Session  At  Once
                     write mode yet.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
                     tests with parameters  that  match  the  behavior  of  CD
                     writers.

              dvd_simul
                     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to run timing and
                     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
                     DVD writers.

              There  are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
              dvd_simul.  These driver entries are  designed  to  make  timing
              tests  at  any  speed  or  timing  tests  for drives that do not
              support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers  implement  a
              drive  with  a  buffer  size of 1 MB that can be changed via the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable.  The  simulation  driver
              correctly  simulates  even  a buffer underrun condition.  If the
              -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in  case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set  driver  specific options. The options are specified a comma
              separated  list.   To  get  a  list   of   valid   options   use
              driveropts=help  together  with  the -checkdrive option.  If you
              like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
              you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, otherwise the
              command  line  parser  in  wodim   will   complain.    Currently
              implemented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn  the  support  for  Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
                     This only works for drives that support  Buffer  Underrun
                     Free  technology,  which  is  available  on  most  drives
                     manufactured in this millennium.   This  may  be  called:
                     Sanyo  BURN-Proof,  Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link
                     or similar.

                     This option is  deprecated  and  is  mentioned  here  for
                     documentation  purposes  only.  The  BURN-Free feature is
                     enabled by default if the drive  supports  it.   However,
                     use  of  BURN-Free  may  cause decreased burning quality.
                     Therefore it can be useful  to  disable  it  for  certain
                     purposes,  eg.  when  creating  a master copy for mass CD
                     production.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is the laser power offset and currently
                     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In  addition,  you
                     need  to  set  the  write  speed  to  4 in order to allow
                     VariRec to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing  mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is  the disk capacity ratio compared to
                     normal recording and currently may be selected from  0.6,
                     0.7,  0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0 are used,
                     then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master  Q.
                     R.   feature.  If  values  >  1.0 are used, then the disk
                     capacity is increased.

                     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a  drive
                     uses  the  GigaRec feature, the write speed is limited to
                     8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn on the Yamaha Audio  Master  Q.  R.   feature  which
                     usually  should result in high quality CDs that have less
                     reading  problems  in  Hi-Fi   players.    As   this   is
                     implemented  as  a  variant  of the Session at Once write
                     mode, it will only work if you select SAO write mode  and
                     there  is  no need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode
                     will work with a limited speed but may also be used  with
                     data  CDs.  In Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will
                     be written larger then  usual  so  the  capacity  of  the
                     medium  is  reduced  when  turning this feature on.  A 74
                     minute CD will only have a  capacity  of  63  minutes  if
                     Audio Master is active and the capacity of a 80 minute CD
                     will be reduced to 68 minutes.

              forcespeed
                     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible  speed
                     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
                     grant best write quality.  This technology may be called:
                     Plextor  PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
                     Speed Control or similar.   Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
                     Ricoh  and  Yamaha)  allow  to force the drive to use the
                     selected speed even if the medium  is  so  bad  that  the
                     write  quality  would  be  poor. This option tells such a
                     drive to force to use the selected  speed  regardless  of
                     the medium quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
                     should know better which medium will work at full  speed.
                     The  default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some ultra high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and  faster
                     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the  read speed for unknown
                     media to e.g. 40x in order to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
                     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
                     media as fast as possible.  Be very careful as  this  may
                     cause  the  media  to  break  in the drive while reading,
                     resulting in a damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn the drive into a single session  only  drive.   This
                     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
                     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
                     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
                     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
                     from  the  first  session  is  used.   You need to enable
                     Single Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave
                     as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
                     This  allows  to  make  CD-Rs  look  like   CD-ROMs   and
                     applications believe that the media in the drive is not a
                     CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
                     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
                     The images always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
                     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
                     If you know the inner and outer radius you will  be  able
                     to  create  a  pre  distorted image that later may appear
                     undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use this option together with  -checkdrive  to  write  an
                     image  prepared  for  the  Yamaha  DiskT@2 feature to the
                     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
                     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
                     call to tattoofile=name .   If  the  size  of  the  image
                     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
                     wodim will use the first part of  the  file.  This  first
                     part  then  will  be written to the leftover space on the
                     CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable  from
                     the pick up side of the CD.

       -setdropts
              Set  the  driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
              speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.   This  allows
              wodim  to  set  drive  specific parameters that are not directly
              used by wodim like e.g.   single  session  mode,  hide  cdr  and
              similar.   It  is  needed  in  case  that driveropts=option list
              should be called without planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
              Checks if a driver for the current drive is  present  and  exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
              obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with  kB  use  1000
              bytes  as  kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
              Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print  the  inquiry
              strings.  This  option  may  be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device types are invisible,
              try  using  dev=ATA:  or similar option to give a hint about the
              device type you are looking for.  The  numbers  printed  out  as
              labels  are  computed  by: bus * 100 + target.  On platforms and
              device systems without persistent  SCSI  number  management  the
              results are not reliable. Use the .B --devices option instead.

       --devices
              Look  for  useable  devices using the system specific functions,
              eg. probing with usual device nodes in /dev/*, and  display  the
              detections using symbolic device names in OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
              works not on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If  you  use  wodim
              only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
              a drive in an unusable condition.  Calling wodim -reset  may  be
              needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the software
              did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
              Allow wodim to write more than the official size  of  a  medium.
              This  feature  is  usually called overburning and depends on the
              fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
              size.  As  the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
              90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are
              at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
              at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD recorders  only  do
              overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
              R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
              not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
              size  of  a  CD  to  e.g.  76  minutes.  This  problem  may   be
              circumvented  by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the
              drive has no chance to find the size before  starting  to  burn.
              There  is  no  guarantee that your drive supports overburning at
              all.  Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
              Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be  used
              with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
              use it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks  with
              more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
              Use  *.inf  files to overwrite audio options.  If this option is
              used, the pregap size information is read from  the  *.inf  file
              that  is  associated  with the file that contains the audio data
              for a track.

              If used together with the -audio option, wodim may  be  used  to
              write  audio  CDs from a pipe from icedax if you call wodim with
              the *.inf files as track parameter list instead of  using  audio
              files.   The  audio  data  is read from stdin in this case.  See
              EXAMPLES section below.  wodim first verifies that stdin is  not
              connected  to  a  terminal  and  runs some heuristic consistency
              checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track  lengths  from
              the information in the *.inf files.

              If  you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called
              with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed to a value
              below  the  read  speed of the source drive and switch the burn-
              free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track  number
              1.   This  option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
              when creating track-at-once disks without the 2  second  silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set  the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
              experimental interface.

       -noclose
              Do not close the current  track,  useful  only  when  in  packet
              writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
              that contains ascii information for  the  text  strings.   wodim
              supports  CD-Text  information based on the content of the *.inf
              files created by icedax and CD-Text  information  based  on  the
              content  from  a  CUE  sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
              both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
              the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
              wodim to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename  in  order  to
              tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like to
              write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or  the
              CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are
              relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write CD-Text based on information  found  in  the  binary  file
              filename.   This  file must contain information in a data format
              defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the  Red  Book.  The
              four  byte  size  header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.   This  is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
              data from existing CDs that already carry  CD-Text  information.
              To  get  data in a format suitable for this option use wodim -vv
              -toc  to  extract  the  information   from   disk.    If   both,
              textfile=filename  and  CD-Text  information from *.inf or *.cue
              files are present, textfile=filename will  overwrite  the  other
              information.

       cuefile=filename
              Take  all  recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant
              CUE sheet file.  No track files are allowed when this option  is
              present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set  the  International  Standard  Recording Number for the next
              track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated  list  of  numbers that are counting from index 1. The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must  be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
              that represent the start of the indices. An index  list  in  the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2 100 seconds from the start  of  the  track  and  index  3  200
              seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-DA (similar to Red Book) audio format.  The  file  with  data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be  the  following:  MSB
              left,  LSB  left,  MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The
              track should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible  to
              put  the  master  image  of an audio track on a raw disk because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
              process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured audio data file.  wodim assumes that the file in this
              case  is  a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV file and extracts
              the audio data from the files by  skipping  over  the  non-audio
              header  information.   In  all other cases, wodim will only work
              correctly if the audio data stream does  not  have  any  header.
              Because  many  structured  audio  files  do not have an integral
              number  of  blocks  (1/75th  second)  in  length,  it  is  often
              necessary  to specify the -pad option as well.  wodim recognizes
              that audio data in a .WAV  file  is  stored  in  Intel  (little-
              endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the data if
              the CD recorder requires big-endian data.  wodim will reject any
              audio  file  that  does  not  match the Red Book requirements of
              16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to wodim will
              usually  work  if  the  structure  of  the data is the structure
              described  above  (raw  pcm  data  in  big-endian  byte  order).
              However,  if  the data format includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of a track.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim  defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to  be  in  byte-
              swapped  (little-endian)  order.   Some types of CD-Writers e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio data to be presented  in  the  big-endian  (network)  byte
              order  normally used by the SCSI protocol.  wodim knows if a CD-
              Recorder needs audio data in big- or  little-endian  order,  and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data  stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note  that the verbose output of wodim will show you if swapping
              is necessary to make the byte order of the input  data  fit  the
              required byte order of the recorder.  wodim will not show you if
              the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
              of 2048 bytes.  The file  with  track  data  should  contain  an
              ISO-9660  or  Rock  Ridge  filesystem image (see genisoimage for
              more details). If the track data is  an  ufs  filesystem  image,
              fragment  size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives
              with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

              -data is the default, if no other flag is present and  the  file
              does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If  neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be  created  by  the
              drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
              and  have  to  be  supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2324
              bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
              way  that  allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The
              data size is a multiple  of  2332  bytes.   The  XA  sector  sub
              headers are part of the user data and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to be written.  The  CRC  and
              the  P/Q  parity  ECC/EDC  information  (depending on the sector
              type) have to be supplied by the application that  prepares  the
              data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this  flag  is  present, the TOC type for the disk is set to
              CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This  option  is  needed  if you want wodim to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO  master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case the option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading
              the two run out blocks that are appended by each CD-recorder  in
              track  at once mode. These two run out blocks cannot be read and
              would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.
              Do  not  use  this option on files created by genisoimage and in
              case wodim reads the track data from stdin.  In the first  case,
              you  would prevent wodim from writing the amount of padding that
              has been appended by genisoimage and in the latter case, it will
              not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If  -isosize  is  used for a track, wodim will automatically add
              padding for this track as if the -pad option has been  used  but
              the  amount  of  padding may be less than the padding written by
              genisoimage.  Note that if you use  -isosize  on  a  track  that
              contains  Sparc  boot  information, the boot information will be
              lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the  size
              of a file system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If  the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be
              added to the end of this and each  subsequent  data  track.   In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.   If  the
              -pad  option  refers to an audio track, wodim will pad the audio
              data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding  is
              done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set  the  amount  of  data to be appended as padding to the next
              track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
              value  for  padsize= is reset to zero for each new track.  wodim
              assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes  for  the  padsize=  option,
              independent  from  the real sector size and independent from the
              write mode.  The megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode  output
              however  are  counting the output sector size which is e.g. 2448
              bytes when writing  in  RAW/RAW96  mode.   See  fs=  option  for
              possible  arguments.   To  pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a
              CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this  option  if  your
              CD-drive  is  not able to read the last sectors of a track or if
              you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux  system  with  the
              ISO-9660  filesystem  read  ahead bug.  If an empty file is used
              for track data, this option may be used to create a disk that is
              entirely made of padding.  This may e.g. be used to find out how
              much overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
              standard  which  requires  a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
              This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
              all  drives  support  this  feature.  The  drive must accept the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been  sampled  with
              50/15  microsec pre-emphasis.  The data, however is not modified
              during the process of transferring  from  file  to  disk.   This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been mastered  with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option has no
              effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
              default.

       -scms  If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
              If  the master image for the next track has been stored on a raw
              disk, use this option to specify the valid  amount  of  data  on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file, the size of that file is taken to determine the length  of
              this  track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image
              use  the  -isosize  option  to  determine  the  length  of  that
              filesystem image.
              In  Disk  at  Once  mode  and with some drives that use the TEAC
              programming interface, even in Track at Once mode,  wodim  needs
              to  know  the  size  of  each track before starting to write the
              disk.  wodim now checks  this  and  aborts  before  starting  to
              write.  If this happens you will need to run genisoimage -print-
              size before and  use  the  output  (with  `s'  appended)  as  an
              argument to the tsize= option of wodim (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES

       For  all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder is
       connected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To  record  a  pure  CD-ROM  at  double speed, using data from the file
       cdimage.raw:

           wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image  for  a  ISO  9660  filesystem  with  Rock  Ridge
       extensions:

           genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If  the  overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, wodim will run without  creating  an
       image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended  minimum  FIFO  size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present  if  you  want to use a different FIFO size.  If your system is
       loaded, you should run genisoimage in the  real  time  class  too.   To
       raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

           genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on  systems  that  don't  have  UNIX  International compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       wodim runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at  no
       more  than priority 58. On other systems, you should run genisoimage at
       no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with  a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.  A  faster  machine  may  be  able  to
       handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To  record  a  pure  CD-DA  (audio)  at  single  speed, with each track
       contained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be ok to use double speed for  the  example  above.
       Use the dummy write option:

           wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the  files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

           genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to copy track indices and  to  read  CD-Text  information
       from  disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to get
       the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           icedax dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including  track  size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If  you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a
       large enough FIFO size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the  write  speed  to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of the source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and
       get a CD/DVD drive with BURN-Free feature if it is not available yet.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch  a  drive  to
       single session mode), run

           wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

           wodim dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or  (in  case  the  CD  contains  many  sectors  that are unreadable by
       intention) by calling:

           readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.   Then  write  the  CD
       using:

           wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT

       CDR_DEVICE
              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open call of the SCSI transport library or a label in  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets  the  default  speed  value  for  writing  (see also speed=
              option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If this environment variable is set, wodim  will  allow  you  to
              write  at  the  full  RAW  encoding speed a single CPU supports.
              This will create high potential of buffer  underruns.  Use  with
              care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If  this  environment  variable  is set, wodim will allow you to
              write at the full DMA speed the system supports.   There  is  no
              DMA  reserve  for  reading  the  data that is to be written from
              disk.  This will create high potential of buffer underruns.  Use
              with care.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment is present, the remote connection will
              not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
              by  RSH.   Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a secure shell
              connection.

              Note that this forces wodim to  create  a  pipe  to  the  rsh(1)
              program  and  disallows  wodim  to  directly  access the network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
              not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
              pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI  server  program
              name  will  be  ignored  if you log in using an account that has
              been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES

       /etc/wodim.conf
              Default  values  can  be  set  for  the  following  options   in
              /etc/wodim.conf.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in  the  file  /etc/wodim.conf  that allows to identify a
                     specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed=
                     option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other keyword (label) is an identifier (symbolic name) for a
              specific drive
                     on the system.  Such an identifier may  not  contain  the
                     characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each  line  that  follows  a  label contains a whitespace
                     separated list  of  items.   Currently,  four  items  are
                     recognized: the drive's target specification, the default
                     speed that should be used for  this  drive,  the  default
                     FIFO  size  that  should be used for this drive and drive
                     specific options. The values for speed and  fifosize  may
                     be  set  to  -1 to tell wodim to use the global defaults.
                     target can be -1 to use the auto-guessing  of  the  drive
                     (see above).

                     The  value  for driveropts may be omitted or set to "" if
                     no driveropts are used.  A typical  line  may  look  this
                     way:

                     plex760= 0,5,0 12   50m  varirec=1

                     pioneer= /dev/hdd   -1   -1

                     This tells wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus
                     0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used with speed 12 and a
                     FIFO  size  of  50  MB. It also uses some device specific
                     parameter.  A second drive  may  is  accessible  via  the
                     device  file  /dev/hdd and uses the default speed and the
                     default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO

       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).

NOTES

       On Solaris you need to stop the volume management if you  like  to  use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like wodim -scanbus
       will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are  not  suitable  as  a  master  for
       direct  mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At  Once  will  normally  be  read in all CD players. Some old audio CD
       players however may produce  a  two  second  click  between  two  audio
       tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and  all  new  SCSI-3/mmc  conforming  drives are
       supported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the  -dummy  option  turned  on  if  you  are using wodim on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a  real-time  process.   NFS,  CIFS  and  other
       network  file  systems  won't always deliver constantly the needed data
       rates.  If you want to use wodim with CD-images that are located  on  a
       NFS  mounted  filesystem, be sure that the FIFO size is big enough.  If
       you want to make sure that buffer underruns  are  not  caused  by  your
       source disk, you may use the command

           wodim -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.

       There  are also cases where you either need to be root or install wodim
       executable with suid-root permissions. First, if you are using a device
       manufactured  before  1999  which requires a non-MMC driver, you should
       run wodim in dummy mode before writing data.  If  you  find  a  problem
       doing this, please report it to the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Second,  certain  functionality may be unusable because of Linux's SCSI
       command filtering. When using wodim for anything except  of  pure  data
       writing,  you  should  also  test  the process in dummy mode and report
       trouble to the contact address below.

       If you still want to run wodim with root permissions, you can  set  the
       permissions of the executable to suid-root. See the additional notes of
       your system/program distribution or README.suidroot which  is  part  of
       the cdrkit source.

       You   should   not   connect   old   drives   that   do   not   support
       disconnect/reconnect to either the SCSI bus that is  connected  to  the
       CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a  CDplus  disk  which  is  a
       multi  session  disk with the first session containing the audio tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more  than  a  single  data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       If  you  have  more  information  or SCSI command manuals for currently
       unsupported  CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders,  please  contact  the   cdrkit
       maintainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware update to work
       correctly. If  you  experience  problems  which  cannot  be  solved  or
       explained  by  the  notes  above,  please  look for instructions on the
       homepage of the particular manufacturer.

       Some bugs will force you to power cycle the device  or  to  reboot  the
       machine.

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written to the CD/DVD-Recorder. For this reason, there  will  never  be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS

       You have 4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting  to  write  CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.  In most
       shells you can do that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              wodim: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport  of  the  command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually  is:  I/O  error  unless  other
       problems  happen.  The  next  words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if  there  were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e.  no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command,  if the transport of the command succeeds.  This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The  fifth  line  is  the  error  text  for the sense key if available,
       followed by the segment number that is only valid if the command was  a
       copy  command.  If  the  error  message  is not directly related to the
       current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for  the  sense  code  and  the  sense
       qualifier  if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense
       data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text  is  followed  by
       the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may  not  be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              wodim: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum  size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS

       netscsid  does  not  work properly and is generally unmaintained. It is
       probably not compatible with rscsi from cdrtools either. Good  bugfixes
       are welcome, talk to Cdrkit maintainers.

       cuefile  support  is  very  limited,  only  one  file  is  allowed. For
       volunteers, see TODO file in the source.

       Specifying an audio file multiple times causes corruption of the second
       track (effectively no data plus minimum padding).

       Some  of the bugs may be fixed in Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See there
       for details, URL attached below.

CREDITS

       Joerg Schilling (schilling@fokus.fhg.de)
                      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most
                      parts of wodim's code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For  creating  the  experimental packet writing support,
                      the first implementation of CD-RW blanking support,  the
                      first  .wav  file  decoder  and many nice discussions on
                      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For  creating  the   first   parallel   port   transport
                      implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for  providing  the  CAM  port for FreeBSD together with
                      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for making libedc_ecc available  (needed  to  write  RAW
                      data sectors).

MAILING LISTS

       If  you want to actively take part on the development of wodim, you may
       join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail address of the list is: debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

AUTHORS

       wodim is currently maintained as part of  the  cdrkit  project  by  its
       developers.  Most  of  the  code  and  this  manual page was originally
       written by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application is derived from "cdrecord" as included in the cdrtools
       package [1] created by Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the credit
       for its success. However, he is not involved into  the  development  of
       this  spinoff  and  therefore  he shall not be held responsible for any
       problems caused by it. Do not refer to this application as  "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing  at  least  a  short description into the Subject and "Package:
       cdrkit" in the first line of the mail body.

SOURCES

       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May 2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de

                                  Version 2.0                         wodim(1)